Nationalism

nationalistnationalisticnationalistsnationalultranationalistultra-nationalistnational unitynationnationalitynational consciousness
Nationalism is an ideology and movement that promotes the interests of a particular nation (as in a group of people) especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining the nation's sovereignty (self-governance) over its homeland.wikipedia
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Left-wing nationalism

left-wing nationalistnationalistleft-wing
Nationalism is often combined with other ideologies, such as conservatism (national conservatism) or socialism (socialist nationalism) for example.
Left-wing nationalism or leftist nationalism, also known as social nationalism and referred to as nationalist socialism or socialist nationalism, is a form of nationalism based upon social equality, popular sovereignty and national self-determination.

Self-determination

self determinationright to self-determinationnational self-determination
Nationalism holds that each nation should govern itself, free from outside interference (self-determination), that a nation is a natural and ideal basis for a polity, and that the nation is the only rightful source of political power (popular sovereignty).
Nationalism emerged as a uniting ideology not only between competing powers, but also for groups that felt subordinated or disenfranchised inside larger states; in this situation, self-determination can be seen as a reaction to imperialism.

National church

Churchnationalculturally unique
It further aims to build and maintain a single national identity—based on shared social characteristics such as culture, language, religion, politics, and belief in a shared singular history —and to promote national unity or solidarity.
The idea was notably discussed during the 19th century, during the emergence of modern nationalism.

Patriotism

patrioticpatriotpatriots
It also encourages pride in national achievements, and is closely linked to patriotism.
It encompasses a set of concepts closely related to nationalism.

Types of nationalism

Post-colonial nationalismstrands of nationalismtype of nationalism
There are various definitions of a "nation", however, which leads to different strands of nationalism.
Nationalism may manifest itself as part of official state ideology or as a popular non-state movement and may be expressed along civic, ethnic, cultural, language, religious or ideological lines.

National language

main languagenationalmajority language
It further aims to build and maintain a single national identity—based on shared social characteristics such as culture, language, religion, politics, and belief in a shared singular history —and to promote national unity or solidarity. National symbols and flags, national anthems, national languages, national myths and other symbols of national identity are highly important in nationalism.
Further, they may enjoy recognition as a language used in compulsory schooling and treasury money may be spent to teach or encourage adults in learning a language which is a minority language in a particular area to restore its understanding and spread its moral stories, rhymes, poems, phrases, songs, and other literary heritage which will promote social cohesion (where other languages remain) or will promote nationalist differentiation where another, non-indigenous language is deprecated.

Ethnic nationalism

ethno-nationalistethnic nationalistethnonationalism
Ethnic nationalism defines the nation in terms of shared ethnicity, heritage and culture, while civic nationalism defines the nation in terms of shared citizenship, values and institutions, and is linked to constitutional patriotism.
Ethnic nationalism, also known as ethnonationalism, is a form of nationalism wherein the nation is defined in terms of ethnicity.

National conservatism

national conservativenational-conservativenational conservatives
Nationalism is often combined with other ideologies, such as conservatism (national conservatism) or socialism (socialist nationalism) for example.
National conservatism is a variant of conservatism common in Europe and Asia that concentrates on upholding national and cultural identity, while mixing conservative elements with purely nationalist ones.

Zionism

ZionistZionistsZionist movement
Nationalism has been an important driver in independence movements, such as the Greek Revolution, the Irish Revolution, the Zionist movement that created modern Israel, and the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
Zionism ( Tsiyyonut after Zion) is the nationalist movement of the Jewish people that espouses the re-establishment of and support for a Jewish state in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel (roughly corresponding to Canaan, the Holy Land, or the region of Palestine).

Ethnosymbolism

ethnosymbolist
Ethnosymbolism explains nationalism as a dynamic, evolutionary phenomenon and stresses the importance of symbols, myths and traditions in the development of nations and nationalism.
Ethnosymbolism is a school of thought in the study of nationalism that stresses the importance of symbols, myths, values and traditions in the formation and persistence of the modern nation state.

Homeland

Fatherlandmotherlandmother country
Nationalism is an ideology and movement that promotes the interests of a particular nation (as in a group of people) especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining the nation's sovereignty (self-governance) over its homeland.
It can be viewed as a nationalist concept, in so far as it is evocative of emotions related to family ties and links them to national identity and patriotism, but in the English language it can also simply mean the country of one's birth or origin.

Constitutional patriotism

Ethnic nationalism defines the nation in terms of shared ethnicity, heritage and culture, while civic nationalism defines the nation in terms of shared citizenship, values and institutions, and is linked to constitutional patriotism.
It is associated with post-nationalist identity, because it is seen as a similar concept to nationalism, but as an attachment based on values of the constitution rather than a national culture.

Conservatism

conservativeconservativesReligious conservatism
Nationalism is often combined with other ideologies, such as conservatism (national conservatism) or socialism (socialist nationalism) for example.
National conservatism is a political term used primarily in Europe to describe a variant of conservatism which concentrates more on national interests than standard conservatism as well as upholding cultural and ethnic identity, while not being outspokenly nationalist or supporting a far-right approach.

Dissolution of the Soviet Union

fall of the Soviet Unioncollapse of the Soviet Uniondissolution of the USSR
Nationalism has been an important driver in independence movements, such as the Greek Revolution, the Irish Revolution, the Zionist movement that created modern Israel, and the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
This liberalization, however, fostered nationalist movements and ethnic disputes within the Soviet Union.

French nationalism

nationalistFrench nationalistnationalism
Typically historians of nationalism in Europe begin with the French Revolution (1789), not only for its impact on French nationalism but even more for its impact on Germans and Italians and on European intellectuals.
French nationalism promotes the cultural unity of France.

National flag

nationalflagnational flags
National symbols and flags, national anthems, national languages, national myths and other symbols of national identity are highly important in nationalism.
With the emergence of nationalist sentiment from the late 18th century national flags began to be displayed in civilian contexts as well.

Self-governance

self-governmentself-governingself-rule
Nationalism is an ideology and movement that promotes the interests of a particular nation (as in a group of people) especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining the nation's sovereignty (self-governance) over its homeland.
It is, therefore, a fundamental tenet of republican government and democracy as well as of nationalism.

French Revolution

RevolutionRevolutionary FranceRevolutionary
Typically historians of nationalism in Europe begin with the French Revolution (1789), not only for its impact on French nationalism but even more for its impact on Germans and Italians and on European intellectuals.
It became the focal point for the development of most modern political ideologies, leading to the spread of liberalism, radicalism, nationalism, and secularism, among many others.

National symbol

national symbolssymbolsNational river
National symbols and flags, national anthems, national languages, national myths and other symbols of national identity are highly important in nationalism.
National symbols intend to unite people by creating visual, verbal, or iconic representations of the national people, values, goals, or history.These symbols are often rallied around as part of celebrations of patriotism or aspiring nationalism (such as independence, autonomy or separation movements) and are designed to be inclusive and representative of all the people of the national community.

Revolutionary nationalism

radical nationalismrevolutionary nationalistradical nationalist
Conversely, radical nationalism combined with racial hatred was also a key factor in the Holocaust perpetrated by Nazi Germany.
By the middle of the 19th century, nationalism was transforming from a citizens’ movement that had opposed the excesses of state power held under the autocratic authority of the monarchies to one where nationalism became a method of political legitimacy for the ruling elite.

Benito Mussolini

MussoliniBenitoDuce
Italy joined the Allies in the First World War after getting promises of territory, but its war effort was a fiasco that discredited liberalism and paved the way for Benito Mussolini and a political doctrine of his own creation, fascism.
Mussolini denounced the PSI, his views now centering on nationalism instead of socialism and later founded the fascist movement which came to oppose egalitarianism and class conflict, instead advocating "revolutionary nationalism" transcending class lines.

Dreyfus affair

DreyfusardDreyfus caseanti-Dreyfusard
The Dreyfus Affair in France 1894–1906 made the battle against treason and disloyalty a central theme for conservative Catholic French nationalists.
The social context was marked by the rise of nationalism and of antisemitism.

Yugoslavism

YugoslavistYugoslav nationalistpro-Yugoslav
It was renamed Yugoslavia, and a Yugoslav identity was promoted, which ultimately failed.
Yugoslavism (јugoslavizam, југославизам; јugoslavizem) or Yugoslavdom (јugoslovenstvo, југословенство; јugoslovanstvo) refers to the unionism, nationalism or patriotism associated with South Slavs/Yugoslavs and Yugoslavia.

Kulturkampf

Germany1876 lawBaden's 'Kulturkampf
Meanwhile, Poles in areas controlled by Germany moved into heavy industry but their religion came under attack by Bismarck in the Kulturkampf of the 1870s.
Under the influence of ascending new philosophies and ideologies such as the enlightenment, realism, positivism, materialism, nationalism, secularism and liberalism, the role of religion in society and the relationship between society and church underwent profound changes in the 18th and 19th centuries.

National myth

national mythologynational mythsnational mythos
National symbols and flags, national anthems, national languages, national myths and other symbols of national identity are highly important in nationalism.
Some scholars believe that national identities, supported by invented histories, were constructed only after national movements and national ideologies emerged.