Native American use of fire in ecosystems

natives controlled fireNative American fires Indians began using fireburningcontrolled fireFirefire to change the landscape and to create open areas for farming and huntingNative AmericanNative AmericansNative Americans controlled fire
Prior to European colonization of the Americas, some Native Americans in the United States used controlled burns to modify the landscape.wikipedia
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Indigenous peoples of the Americas

Native AmericanNative Americansindigenous
These controlled fires were part of the environmental cycles and maintenance of wildlife habitats that sustained the people's cultures and economies.
Concurrently, the Archaic Indians began using fire in a controlled manner.

Controlled burn

prescribed burnprescribed fireprescribed burning
Prior to European colonization of the Americas, some Native Americans in the United States used controlled burns to modify the landscape.
Native American use of fire

Wilderness

outdoorwildlandwild
What was initially perceived by colonists as "untouched, pristine" wilderness in North America, was actually the cumulative result of these occasional, managed fires creating an intentional mosaic of grasslands and forests across North America, sustained and managed by the original Peoples of the landbase.
Native American use of fire

Fire ecology

firefire cyclefire ecologist
What was initially perceived by colonists as "untouched, pristine" wilderness in North America, was actually the cumulative result of these occasional, managed fires creating an intentional mosaic of grasslands and forests across North America, sustained and managed by the original Peoples of the landbase.
Native American use of fire, not natural fires, historically maintained the diversity of the savannas of North America.

European colonization of the Americas

white settlersEuropean colonizationEuropean settlement
Prior to European colonization of the Americas, some Native Americans in the United States used controlled burns to modify the landscape.

Native Americans in the United States

Native AmericanNative AmericansAmerican Indian
Prior to European colonization of the Americas, some Native Americans in the United States used controlled burns to modify the landscape.

Edge effects

edge effectedge habitatsedge
What was initially perceived by colonists as "untouched, pristine" wilderness in North America, was actually the cumulative result of these occasional, managed fires creating an intentional mosaic of grasslands and forests across North America, sustained and managed by the original Peoples of the landbase.

Grassland

grasslandsgrassveldgrass
What was initially perceived by colonists as "untouched, pristine" wilderness in North America, was actually the cumulative result of these occasional, managed fires creating an intentional mosaic of grasslands and forests across North America, sustained and managed by the original Peoples of the landbase.

Forest

forestsconiferous forestsforested
What was initially perceived by colonists as "untouched, pristine" wilderness in North America, was actually the cumulative result of these occasional, managed fires creating an intentional mosaic of grasslands and forests across North America, sustained and managed by the original Peoples of the landbase.

North America

NorthNAAmerica
What was initially perceived by colonists as "untouched, pristine" wilderness in North America, was actually the cumulative result of these occasional, managed fires creating an intentional mosaic of grasslands and forests across North America, sustained and managed by the original Peoples of the landbase.

Colonization

colonisationcolonizecolonial
In the 1880s, impacts of colonization had devastated indigenous populations, and fire exclusion became more widespread; by the early 20th century fire suppression had become official U.S. federal policy.

Traditional knowledge

indigenous knowledgeindigenouslocal knowledge
Understanding pre-colonization land management, and the traditional knowledge held by the Indigenous peoples who practiced it, provides an important basis for current re-engagement with the landscape and is critical to correctly interpreting the ecological basis for vegetation distribution.

William Henry Hudson

W. H. HudsonW.H. HudsonW H Hudson
Authors such as William Henry Hudson, Longfellow, Francis Parkman, and Thoreau contributed to the widespread myth that pre-Columbian North America was a pristine, natural wilderness, "a world of barely perceptible human disturbance.” At the time of these writings, however, enormous tracts of land had already been allowed to succeed to climax due to the reduction in anthropogenic fires after the [[Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas#Depopulation from disease|genocide of Native peoples]] from epidemics of diseases introduced by Europeans in the 16th century, forced relocation, and warfare. Prior to the arrival of Europeans, Native Americans had played a major role in determining the diversity of their ecosystems.

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

LongfellowHenry LongfellowHenry W. Longfellow
Authors such as William Henry Hudson, Longfellow, Francis Parkman, and Thoreau contributed to the widespread myth that pre-Columbian North America was a pristine, natural wilderness, "a world of barely perceptible human disturbance.” At the time of these writings, however, enormous tracts of land had already been allowed to succeed to climax due to the reduction in anthropogenic fires after the [[Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas#Depopulation from disease|genocide of Native peoples]] from epidemics of diseases introduced by Europeans in the 16th century, forced relocation, and warfare. Prior to the arrival of Europeans, Native Americans had played a major role in determining the diversity of their ecosystems.

Francis Parkman

Francis Parkman, Jr.Parkman, FrancisFrancis Parkman Junior
Authors such as William Henry Hudson, Longfellow, Francis Parkman, and Thoreau contributed to the widespread myth that pre-Columbian North America was a pristine, natural wilderness, "a world of barely perceptible human disturbance.” At the time of these writings, however, enormous tracts of land had already been allowed to succeed to climax due to the reduction in anthropogenic fires after the [[Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas#Depopulation from disease|genocide of Native peoples]] from epidemics of diseases introduced by Europeans in the 16th century, forced relocation, and warfare. Prior to the arrival of Europeans, Native Americans had played a major role in determining the diversity of their ecosystems.

Henry David Thoreau

ThoreauHenry Thoreau(Henry David) Thoreau
Authors such as William Henry Hudson, Longfellow, Francis Parkman, and Thoreau contributed to the widespread myth that pre-Columbian North America was a pristine, natural wilderness, "a world of barely perceptible human disturbance.” At the time of these writings, however, enormous tracts of land had already been allowed to succeed to climax due to the reduction in anthropogenic fires after the [[Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas#Depopulation from disease|genocide of Native peoples]] from epidemics of diseases introduced by Europeans in the 16th century, forced relocation, and warfare. Prior to the arrival of Europeans, Native Americans had played a major role in determining the diversity of their ecosystems.

Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas

Native American populationpopulationsdemographic collapse
Authors such as William Henry Hudson, Longfellow, Francis Parkman, and Thoreau contributed to the widespread myth that pre-Columbian North America was a pristine, natural wilderness, "a world of barely perceptible human disturbance.” At the time of these writings, however, enormous tracts of land had already been allowed to succeed to climax due to the reduction in anthropogenic fires after the [[Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas#Depopulation from disease|genocide of Native peoples]] from epidemics of diseases introduced by Europeans in the 16th century, forced relocation, and warfare. Prior to the arrival of Europeans, Native Americans had played a major role in determining the diversity of their ecosystems.

Native American disease and epidemics

colonization of the Americascommunicable diseasedevastating population losses to European infectious diseases
Authors such as William Henry Hudson, Longfellow, Francis Parkman, and Thoreau contributed to the widespread myth that pre-Columbian North America was a pristine, natural wilderness, "a world of barely perceptible human disturbance.” At the time of these writings, however, enormous tracts of land had already been allowed to succeed to climax due to the reduction in anthropogenic fires after the [[Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas#Depopulation from disease|genocide of Native peoples]] from epidemics of diseases introduced by Europeans in the 16th century, forced relocation, and warfare. Prior to the arrival of Europeans, Native Americans had played a major role in determining the diversity of their ecosystems.

Genocide of indigenous peoples

genocidegenocide of Native AmericansAmerica committed atrocities and genocide against Native Americans
Authors such as William Henry Hudson, Longfellow, Francis Parkman, and Thoreau contributed to the widespread myth that pre-Columbian North America was a pristine, natural wilderness, "a world of barely perceptible human disturbance.” At the time of these writings, however, enormous tracts of land had already been allowed to succeed to climax due to the reduction in anthropogenic fires after the [[Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas#Depopulation from disease|genocide of Native peoples]] from epidemics of diseases introduced by Europeans in the 16th century, forced relocation, and warfare. Prior to the arrival of Europeans, Native Americans had played a major role in determining the diversity of their ecosystems.

Environmental change

change in its environmentenvironment changingenvironmental
The most significant type of environmental change brought about by Precolumbian human activity was the modification of vegetation.

Undergrowth

Fire was used to keep large areas of forest and mountains free of undergrowth for hunting or travel, or to create berry patches.

Terra preta

black earthTerra Preta de Indioanthropic soil conditions
Terra preta soils, created by slow burning, are found mainly in the Amazon basin, where estimates of the area covered range from 0.1 to 0.3%, or 6,300 to 18,900 km² of low forested Amazonia to 1.0% or more.

Amazon basin

AmazonAmazonianAmazonas
Terra preta soils, created by slow burning, are found mainly in the Amazon basin, where estimates of the area covered range from 0.1 to 0.3%, or 6,300 to 18,900 km² of low forested Amazonia to 1.0% or more.