Native Americans in the United States

Native AmericanNative AmericansAmerican IndianIndianIndiansAmerican IndiansNativeNative-Americanindigenous peoplesNative American tribes
Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii and territories of the United States.wikipedia
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Territories of the United States

territoriesU.S. territoriesterritory
Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii and territories of the United States.
The various U.S. territories differ from the U.S. states and Native American tribes in that they are not sovereign entities.

Slavery among Native Americans in the United States

Indian slaveryslaveryIndian slave trade
Native Americans were greatly affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, and their population declined precipitously overwhelmingly due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, including biological warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
Slavery among Native Americans in the United States includes slavery by Native Americans as well as slavery of Native Americans roughly within the present-day United States.

Contemporary Native American issues in the United States

contemporary issues faced by Native Americanscontinues to be an active issueNative American hardships
Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans.
Contemporary Native American issues in the United States are issues arising in the late 20th century and early 21st century which affect Native Americans in the United States.

Indigenous peoples of the Americas

Native AmericanNative Americansindigenous
Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii and territories of the United States.
Indigenous peoples of the United States are commonly known as Native Americans or American Indians and Alaska Natives.

Native American civil rights

Native American rightsrights of Native AmericansAmerican Indian rights
However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades.
Native American civil rights are the civil rights of Native Americans in the United States.

Native American self-determination

self-determinationAllan YazzieIndian self-determination
Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans.
Native American self-determination refers to the social movements, legislation, and beliefs by which the Native American tribes in the United States exercise self-governance and decision making on issues that affect their own people.

United States

AmericanU.S.USA
Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii and territories of the United States.
With the progress of European colonization in the territories of the contemporary United States, the Native Americans were often conquered and displaced.

Choctaw

Choctaw IndiansChoctawsChoctaw people
Assimilation (whether voluntary, as with the Choctaw, or forced) became a consistent policy through American administrations.
The Choctaw (Chahta) are a Native American people originally occupying what is now the Southeastern United States (modern-day Alabama, Florida, Mississippi and Louisiana).

Civil Rights Act of 1968

Fair Housing ActFair Housing Act of 1968Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968
Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968.
Titles II through VII comprise the Indian Civil Rights Act, which applies to the Native American tribes of the United States and makes many but not all of the guarantees of the Bill of Rights applicable within the tribes (that Act appears today in Title 25, sections 1301 to 1303 of the United States Code).

George Washington

WashingtonGeneral WashingtonGeneral George Washington
After the thirteen colonies revolted against Great Britain and established the United States, President George Washington and Secretary of War Henry Knox conceived of the idea of "civilizing" Native Americans in preparation for assimilation as U.S. citizens.
He endeavored to assimilate Native Americans into Western culture, but responded to their hostility in times of war.

Indigenous peoples of the Northeastern Woodlands

Northeastern WoodlandsNortheastern Woodlands tribesindigenous people of the Northeastern Woodlands
Indigenous peoples of the Northeastern Woodlands include Native American tribes and First Nation bands residing in or originating from a cultural area encompassing the northeastern and Midwest United States and southeastern Canada.

Indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands

Southeastern Woodlandsindigenous people of the Southeastern WoodlandsSoutheastern tribes
Indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands, Southeastern cultures, or Southeast Indians are an ethnographic classification for Native Americans who have traditionally inhabited the area now part of the Southeastern United States and the northeastern border of Mexico, that share common cultural traits.

Indigenous peoples of the Great Basin

Great BasinGreat Basin tribesGreat Basin tribe
As American expansion reached into the West, settler and miner migrants came into increasing conflict with the Great Basin, Great Plains, and other Western tribes.
The Indigenous Peoples of the Great Basin are Native Americans of the northern Great Basin, Snake River Plain, and upper Colorado River basin.

Indigenous peoples of California

indigenous people of CaliforniaCalifornia IndiansNative Californian
Some scholars contend that the state financing of these militias, as well as the US government's role in other massacres in California, such as the Bloody Island and Yontoket Massacres, in which up to 400 or more natives were killed in each massacre, constitutes a campaign of genocide against the native people of California.
The indigenous peoples of California (known as Native Californians) are the indigenous inhabitants who have lived or currently live in the geographic area within the current boundaries of California before and after the arrival of Europeans.

Indian Citizenship Act

Indian Citizenship Act of 1924acquired 1924all American Indians were recognized as citizens
The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U.S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States who had not yet obtained it.
The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924, also known as the Snyder Act, was proposed by Representative Homer P. Snyder (R) of New York and granted full U.S. citizenship to the indigenous peoples of the United States, called "Indians" in this Act.

First Nations

First NationNorth American IndianIndian
By comparison, the indigenous peoples of Canada are generally known as First Nations.
Although not without conflict, early Quebecers', Acadians', and Newfoundlanders' interactions with First Nations, Métis, and Inuit populations were less combative compared to the often violent battles between colonists and native peoples in the United States.

Biological warfare

biologicalbiological weaponsgerm warfare
Native Americans were greatly affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, and their population declined precipitously overwhelmingly due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, including biological warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
The British Army commanders approved the use of smallpox as a biological weapon in the French and Indian War to target Native Americans during the Siege of Fort Pitt in 1763.

First Nations Experience

FNXFirst Nations Experience (FNX)
Cultural activism since the late 1960s has increased political participation and led to an expansion of efforts to teach and preserve indigenous languages for younger generations and to establish a greater cultural infrastructure: Native Americans have founded independent newspapers and online media, recently including First Nations Experience, the first Native American television channel; established Native American studies programs, tribal schools, and universities, and museums and language programs; and have increasingly been published as authors in numerous genres.
FNX is America's first and only broadcast network aimed at Native Americans and global Indigenous audiences and consumers of Native culture.

Apache

ApachesApache IndiansApachean
Na-Dené-speaking peoples were the earliest ancestors of the Athabascan-speaking peoples, including the present-day and historical Navajo and Apache.
The Apache are a group of culturally related Native American tribes in the Southwestern United States, which include the Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Lipan, Mescalero, Salinero, Plains and Western Apache.

Treaty rights

process for a formalised treaty for Indigenous Victoriansrighttreaties
Contemporary Native Americans have a unique relationship with the United States because they may be members of nations, tribes, or bands with sovereignty and treaty rights.
This applies to the rights of Alaska Natives and Native Americans in the United States and First Nations in Canada, as well as to a smaller number of Inuit and Metis in Canada who have entered into treaties.

Tribal colleges and universities

tribal collegetribaltribal colleges
Cultural activism since the late 1960s has increased political participation and led to an expansion of efforts to teach and preserve indigenous languages for younger generations and to establish a greater cultural infrastructure: Native Americans have founded independent newspapers and online media, recently including First Nations Experience, the first Native American television channel; established Native American studies programs, tribal schools, and universities, and museums and language programs; and have increasingly been published as authors in numerous genres.
These educational institutions are distinguished by being controlled and operated by American Indian tribes; they have become part of American Indians' institution-building in order to pass on their own cultures.

Fort Ancient

Fort Ancient cultureFort Ancient culture potteryFort Ancient peoples
Sites & cultures include: Adena, Old Copper, Oasisamerica, Woodland, Fort Ancient, Hopewell tradition and Mississippian cultures.
Fort Ancient is a name for a Native American culture that flourished from Ca.

Hopewell tradition

Hopewell cultureHopewellHopewellian
Sites & cultures include: Adena, Old Copper, Oasisamerica, Woodland, Fort Ancient, Hopewell tradition and Mississippian cultures.
The Hopewell tradition (also called the Hopewell culture) describes the common aspects of the Native American culture that flourished along rivers in the northeastern and midwestern Eastern Woodlands from 100 BCE to 500 CE, in the Middle Woodland period.

Mississippian culture

MississippianMississippian periodSouth Appalachian Mississippian culture
Sites & cultures include: Adena, Old Copper, Oasisamerica, Woodland, Fort Ancient, Hopewell tradition and Mississippian cultures.
The Mississippian culture was a mound-building Native American civilization that flourished in what is now the Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States from approximately 800 to 1600, varying regionally.

Native American disease and epidemics

Native American healtha wide variety of deadly diseasescolonization of the Americas
Native Americans were greatly affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, and their population declined precipitously overwhelmingly due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, including biological warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
The siege was a part of Pontiac's War, an effort by Native Americans to remove the British from the Ohio Country and Allegheny Plateau after they refused to honor their promises and treaties to leave voluntarily after the defeat of the French.