Natural-born-citizen clause

natural-born citizennatural born citizenNatural born citizen of the United Statesnatural-born citizen of the United Statesnatural-bornnatural bornnatural-born U.S. citizenborn in the United Statescitizens of the U.S. at birthnatural born American citizens
Status as a natural-born citizen of the United States is one of the eligibility requirements established in the United States Constitution for holding the office of President or Vice President.wikipedia
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President of the United States

PresidentU.S. PresidentUnited States President
Status as a natural-born citizen of the United States is one of the eligibility requirements established in the United States Constitution for holding the office of President or Vice President.
[[Article Two of the United States Constitution#Clause 5: Qualifications for office|Article II, Section 1, Clause 5]] sets three qualifications for holding the presidency: natural-born U.S. citizenship; at least thirty-five years of age; and residency in the United States for at least fourteen years.

2016 United States presidential election

20162016 presidential election2016 U.S. presidential election
Many eligibility lawsuits from the 2008, 2012, and 2016 election cycles were dismissed in lower courts due to the challengers' difficulty in showing that they had standing to raise legal objections.
Article Two of the United States Constitution provides that the President and Vice President of the United States must be natural-born citizens of the United States, at least 35 years old, and residents of the United States for a period of at least 14 years.

Citizenship of the United States

United States citizenAmericanU.S. citizen
Under Article One, representatives and senators are required to be U.S. citizens, but there is no requirement that they be natural born.

Birthright citizenship in the United States

birthright citizenshipbirthright citizensU.S. citizenship at birth
Many scholars have also concluded that those who meet the legal requirements for U.S. citizenship "at the moment of birth", regardless of place of birth, are also natural-born citizens.
According to the Constitution of the United States only natural born citizens are eligible to serve as President of the United States or as Vice President.

Abdul Hassan (lawyer)

Abdul Hassan (American lawyer)Abdul Karim Hassan
In 2012, Abdul Karim Hassan filed several unsuccessful lawsuits that claimed the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment had superseded the natural-born-citizen clause; he had argued natural-born citizenship was a form of discrimination based on national origin.
In 2012, he filed several lawsuits claiming that the natural-born-citizen clause violated the 5th and 14th Amendments, arguing it was a form of discrimination based on national origin.

Article Two of the United States Constitution

Article IIArticle TwoArticle II, Section 1, Clause 6
Section 1 of [[Article Two of the United States Constitution#Clause 5: Qualifications for office|Article Two]] of the United States Constitution sets forth the eligibility requirements for serving as president of the United States, under clause 5 (emphasis added):

Equal Opportunity to Govern Amendment

Arnold Amendment
Two of the more well known were introduced by Representative Jonathan Bingham in 1974, with the intent to allow German-born Secretary of State Henry Kissinger (otherwise fourth in the line of succession) to become eligible, and the Equal Opportunity to Govern Amendment by Senator Orrin Hatch in 2003, intending to allow eligibility for Austrian-born Arnold Schwarzenegger.
The Equal Opportunity to Govern Amendment, also known as the Hatch Amendment, is a United States constitutional amendment proposed in July 2003 by Senator Orrin Hatch (R-Utah) to repeal the natural born citizen clause prohibiting citizens who were naturalized from holding the office of President or Vice President of the United States.

Vice President of the United States

Vice PresidentU.S. Vice Presidentvice presidential
Status as a natural-born citizen of the United States is one of the eligibility requirements established in the United States Constitution for holding the office of President or Vice President.

United States presidential line of succession

presidential line of successionline of successionline of succession to the presidency
Two of the more well known were introduced by Representative Jonathan Bingham in 1974, with the intent to allow German-born Secretary of State Henry Kissinger (otherwise fourth in the line of succession) to become eligible, and the Equal Opportunity to Govern Amendment by Senator Orrin Hatch in 2003, intending to allow eligibility for Austrian-born Arnold Schwarzenegger.
To serve as president, one must: be a natural-born citizen of the United States; be at least thirty-five years old; and be a resident in the United States for at least fourteen years.

Naturalization Act of 1790

Naturalization Actfederal law from 1790first U.S. naturalization act
The Naturalization Act of 1790 stated that "the children of citizens of the United States, that may be born beyond sea, or out of the limits of the United States, shall be considered as natural born citizens: Provided, That the right of citizenship shall not descend to persons whose fathers have never been resident in the United States."
It also provided for citizenship for the children of U.S. citizens born abroad, stating that such children "shall be considered as natural born citizens," the only US statute ever to use the term.

Chester A. Arthur

Chester ArthurArthurChester Alan Arthur
Of those in the latter group, every president except two (Chester A. Arthur and Barack Obama) had two U.S.-citizen parents.
Had that been true, opponents might have argued that Arthur was constitutionally ineligible for the vice presidency under the United States Constitution's natural-born-citizen clause.

Gabriel J. Chin

Gabriel ChinChin, G.Chin, Gabriel J.
concluded, after reviewing the Fourteenth Amendment and the applicable common law as interpreted by the Supreme Court of the United States, that President Barack Obama is a natural born citizen given that Obama was a citizen "by birth" under the Fourteenth Amendment.

Nationality Act of 1940

Nationality Act
In 1940, the Nationality Act of 1940, explicitly defined "naturalization" as conferring nationality after birth.

Barack Obama citizenship conspiracy theories

birtherbirther movementbirtherism
On June 12, 2008, the Obama presidential campaign launched a website to counter what it described as a smear campaign by his opponents, including conspiracy theories challenging his eligibility.
During Barack Obama's campaign for president in 2008, throughout his presidency, and afterwards, a number of conspiracy theories falsely asserted Obama was ineligible to be President of the United States because he was not a natural-born citizen of the U.S. as required by [[Article Two of the United States Constitution#Clause 5: Qualifications for office|Article Two of the Constitution]].

Barack Obama presidential eligibility litigation

Ankeny v. Governor of the State of IndianaBarack Obama's eligibility to run for presidentBarry Soetoro
The most prominent issue raised against Obama was the claim made in several lawsuits that he was not actually born in Hawaii.
Essek sought to prevent the inauguration of Barack Obama on the grounds that Obama was not a natural born citizen based on allegations that Obama was born in Kenya.

John McCain

McCainSenator John McCainJohn S. McCain III
John McCain was born in 1936 at Coco Solo, Naval Air Station in the Panama Canal Zone.
This raised a potential legal issue, since the United States Constitution requires the president to be a natural-born citizen of the United States.

2020 United States presidential election

2020 U.S. presidential election2020 presidential election2020
Kamala Harris announced in 2019 that she was running for the Democratic Party's nomination for the 2020 United States presidential election.
Article Two of the United States Constitution states that for a person to serve as president the individual must be a natural-born citizen of the United States, at least 35 years old and a United States resident for at least 14 years.

Orly Taitz

Cook v. GoodPamela BarnettRhodes v. Macdonald
Orly Taitz, Larry Klayman, and Mario Apuzzo, who each filed multiple lawsuits challenging Obama's eligibility, have also asserted that Cruz is not eligible.
Taitz alleges that President Obama is not a natural-born citizen of the United States and is therefore ineligible to serve as President.

United States presidential eligibility legislation

H.R. 1503constitutionally unablelegislation
The controversy generated by various conspiracy theorists who asserted during the 2008 presidential election campaign that Barack Obama was not a natural-born U.S. citizen, as mandated by the Constitution, and thus was ineligible to be President of the United States, prompted several state legislatures to consider legislation aimed at requiring future presidential candidates to show proof of presidential eligibility before being granted ballot access in their state.

United States nationality law

AmericanU.S. citizenUnited States
The U.S. State Department's Foreign Affairs Manual states that children born in the Panama Canal Zone at certain times became U.S. nationals without citizenship.
Adult citizens of the United States who are residents of one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia (Washington, D.C.) have the right to participate in the political system of the United States, as well as their state and local governments, (with most states having restrictions on voting by persons convicted of felonies, and a federal constitutional prohibition on naturalized persons running for President and Vice President of the United States), to be represented and protected abroad by the United States (through U.S. embassies and consulates), and to live in the United States and certain territories without any immigration requirements.

George W. Romney

George RomneyRomneyGeorge
George W. Romney, who ran for the Republican party presidential nomination in 1968, was born in Mexico to U.S. parents.
Questions were occasionally asked about Romney's eligibility to run for President owing to his birth in Mexico, given the ambiguity in the United States Constitution over the phrase "natural-born citizen".

Larry Klayman

Orly Taitz, Larry Klayman, and Mario Apuzzo, who each filed multiple lawsuits challenging Obama's eligibility, have also asserted that Cruz is not eligible.
In 2012, Klayman filed on behalf of a Florida resident an unsuccessful challenge to Barack Obama's placement on the primary ballot and claimed the president is not a natural-born citizen as required by the Constitution.

Arnold Schwarzenegger

SchwarzeneggerGovernor SchwarzeneggerGovernor Arnold Schwarzenegger
Arnold Schwarzenegger was reported as considering challenging the prevailing interpretation of the clause.
Schwarzenegger cannot run for U.S. President as he is not a natural-born citizen of the United States.

United States

AmericanU.S.USA
Status as a natural-born citizen of the United States is one of the eligibility requirements established in the United States Constitution for holding the office of President or Vice President.

Constitution of the United States

United States ConstitutionU.S. ConstitutionConstitution
Status as a natural-born citizen of the United States is one of the eligibility requirements established in the United States Constitution for holding the office of President or Vice President. Section 1 of [[Article Two of the United States Constitution#Clause 5: Qualifications for office|Article Two]] of the United States Constitution sets forth the eligibility requirements for serving as president of the United States, under clause 5 (emphasis added):