A report on Natural environment

Land management has preserved the natural characteristics of Hopetoun Falls, Australia while allowing ample access for visitors.
An image of the Sahara desert from satellite. It is the world's largest hot desert and third-largest desert after the polar deserts.
A volcanic fissure and lava channel
Earth's layered structure: (1) inner core; (2) outer core; (3) lower mantle; (4) upper mantle; (5) lithosphere; (6) crust
Coral reefs have significant marine biodiversity.
Rocky stream in the U.S. state of Hawaii
Lácar Lake, of glacial origin, in the
A swamp area in Everglades National Park, Florida, US.
Atmospheric gases scatter blue light more than other wavelengths, creating a blue halo when seen from space.
A view of Earth's troposphere from an airplane
Lightning is an atmospheric discharge of electricity accompanied by thunder, which occurs during thunderstorms and certain other natural conditions.
The retreat of glaciers since 1850 of Aletsch Glacier in the Swiss Alps (situation in 1979, 1991 and 2002), due to global warming
Another view of the Aletsch Glacier in the Swiss Alps, which because of global warming has been decreasing
A rainbow is an optical and meteorological phenomenon that causes a spectrum of light to appear in the sky when the Sun shines onto droplets of moisture in the Earth's atmosphere.
There are many plant species on the planet.
An example of the many animal species on the Earth
Rainforests often have a great deal of biodiversity with many plant and animal species. This is the Gambia River in Senegal's Niokolo-Koba National Park.
Old-growth forest and a creek on Larch Mountain, in the U.S. state of Oregon
Map of terrestrial biomes classified by vegetation
Chloroplasts conduct photosynthesis and are found in plant cells and other eukaryotic organisms. These are chloroplasts visible in the cells of Plagiomnium affine — many-fruited thyme-moss.
A conifer forest in the Swiss Alps (National Park)
The Ahklun Mountains and the Togiak Wilderness within the Togiak National Wildlife Refuge in the U.S. state of Alaska
A view of wilderness in Estonia
Before flue-gas desulfurization was installed, the air-polluting emissions from this power plant in New Mexico contained excessive amounts of sulfur dioxide.
Amazon rainforest in Brazil. The tropical rainforests of South America contain the largest diversity of species on Earth, including some that have evolved within the past few hundred thousand years.

Built environment.

- Natural environment
Land management has preserved the natural characteristics of Hopetoun Falls, Australia while allowing ample access for visitors.

19 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Life

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Quality that distinguishes matter that has biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from that which does not, and is defined by the capacity for growth, reaction to stimuli, metabolism, energy transformation, and reproduction.

Quality that distinguishes matter that has biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from that which does not, and is defined by the capacity for growth, reaction to stimuli, metabolism, energy transformation, and reproduction.

Adenovirus as seen under an electron microscope
Definition of cellular life according to Budisa, Kubyshkin and Schmidt.
The structure of the souls of plants, animals, and humans, according to Aristotle
Cyanobacteria dramatically changed the composition of life forms on Earth by leading to the near-extinction of oxygen-intolerant organisms.
Deinococcus radiodurans is an extremophile that can resist extremes of cold, dehydration, vacuum, acid, and radiation exposure.
Animal corpses, like this African buffalo, are recycled by the ecosystem, providing energy and nutrients for living creatures

The Gaia hypothesis, proposed in the 1960s by scientist James Lovelock, suggests that life on Earth functions as a single organism that defines and maintains environmental conditions necessary for its survival.

Diagram of a fly from Robert Hooke's innovative Micrographia, 1665

Biology

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Scientific study of life.

Scientific study of life.

Diagram of a fly from Robert Hooke's innovative Micrographia, 1665
In 1842, Charles Darwin penned his first sketch of On the Origin of Species.
In the Bohr model of an atom, electrons (blue dot) orbit around an atomic nucleus (red-filled circle) in specific atomic orbitals (grey empty circles).
Model of hydrogen bonds (1) between molecules of water
Organic compounds such as glucose are vital to organisms.
A phospholipid bilayer consists of two adjacent sheets of phospholipids, with the hydrophilic tails facing inwards and the hydrophobic heads facing outwards.
The (a) primary, (b) secondary, (c) tertiary, and (d) quaternary structures of a hemoglobin protein
Structure of an animal cell depicting various organelles
Structure of a plant cell
Example of an enzyme-catalysed exothermic reaction
Respiration in a eukaryotic cell
Photosynthesis changes sunlight into chemical energy, splits water to liberate O2, and fixes CO2 into sugar.
In meiosis, the chromosomes duplicate and the homologous chromosomes exchange genetic information during meiosis I. The daughter cells divide again in meiosis II to form haploid gametes.
Punnett square depicting a cross between two pea plants heterozygous for purple (B) and white (b) blossoms
Bases lie between two spiraling DNA strands.
The extended central dogma of molecular biology includes all the processes involved in the flow of genetic information.
Regulation of various stages of gene expression
Composition of the human genome
Construction of recombinant DNA, in which a foreign DNA fragment is inserted into a plasmid vector
Model of concentration gradient building up; fine yellow-orange outlines are cell boundaries.
Natural selection for darker traits
Comparison of allopatric, peripatric, parapatric and sympatric speciation
Bacteria – Gemmatimonas aurantiaca (-=1 Micrometer)
Archaea – Halobacteria
Diversity of protists
Diversity of plants
Diversity of fungi. Clockwise from top left: Amanita muscaria, a basidiomycete; Sarcoscypha coccinea, an ascomycete; bread covered in mold; chytrid; Aspergillus conidiophore.
Bacteriophages attached to a bacterial cell wall
Root and shoot systems in a eudicot
The xylem (blue) transports water and minerals from the roots upwards whereas the phloem (orange) transports carbohydrates between organs.
Reproduction and development in sporophytes
Negative feedback is necessary for maintaining homeostasis such as keeping body temperature constant.
Diffusion of water and ions in and out of a freshwater fish
Different digestive systems in marine fishes
Respiratory system in a bird
Circulatory systems in arthropods, fish, reptiles, and birds/mammals
Asynchronous muscles power flight in most insects. a: Wings b: Wing joint c: Dorsoventral muscles power upstrokes d: Dorsolongitudinal muscles power downstrokes.
Mouse pyramidal neurons (green) and GABAergic neurons (red)
Sexual reproduction in dragonflies
Cleavage in zebrafish embryo
Processes in the primary immune response
Brood parasites, such as the cuckoo, provide a supernormal stimulus to the parenting species.
Terrestrial biomes are shaped by temperature and precipitation.
Reaching carrying capacity through a logistic growth curve
A (a) trophic pyramid and a (b) simplified food web. The trophic pyramid represents the biomass at each level.
Fast carbon cycle showing the movement of carbon between land, atmosphere, and oceans in billions of tons per year. Yellow numbers are natural fluxes, red are human contributions, white are stored carbon. Effects of the slow carbon cycle, such as volcanic and tectonic activity, are not included.
Efforts are made to preserve the natural characteristics of Hopetoun Falls, Australia, without affecting visitors' access.

Ecology is the study of the distribution and abundance of life, the interaction between organisms and their environment.

Environmentalism on United States stamps

Environmentalism

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Broad philosophy, ideology, and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the impact of changes to the environment on humans, animals, plants and non-living matter.

Broad philosophy, ideology, and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the impact of changes to the environment on humans, animals, plants and non-living matter.

Environmentalism on United States stamps
Lord Mahavira, the last Jain Tirthankar, is also considered to be a great environmentalist.
Levels of air pollution rose during the Industrial Revolution, sparking the first modern environmental laws to be passed in the mid-19th century.
John Ruskin, an influential thinker who articulated the Romantic ideal of environmental protection and conservation
Original title page of Walden by Henry David Thoreau
In the United States and several other countries, the boom was manifested in suburban development and urban sprawl, aided by automobile ownership.
Demonstrators in a tree at the Berkeley oak grove protest in 2008
Before flue-gas desulfurization was installed, the air-polluting emissions from this power plant in New Mexico contained excessive amounts of sulfur dioxide.
Federal Register documents and literature related to US environmental regulations, including the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 1987
Reef doctor work station in Ifaty, Madagascar
Climate activists blockade British Airports Authority's headquarters for day of action.
"March Against Monsanto", Vancouver, Canada, 25 May 2013
Early American game warden Guy Bradley, who was killed in 1905 while attempting to stop a bird poacher near Flamingo, Florida

In general terms, environmentalists advocate the sustainable management of resources, and the protection (and restoration, when necessary) of the natural environment through changes in public policy and individual behaviour.

Innoko Wilderness, Alaska, United States, in the summer

Wilderness

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Innoko Wilderness, Alaska, United States, in the summer
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El Toro Wilderness within the Caribbean National Forest in Puerto Rico
Cook Lake in the Bridger Wilderness, Bridger-Teton National Forest, Wyoming, U.S.
Tsarmitunturi Wilderness Area
The Great Swamp of New Jersey, donated for federal protection by concerned residents, was designated as the first wilderness refuge in the United States
Latir Peak Wilderness, in New Mexico
Monument Valley in Utah, United States
The Ahklun Mountains and the Togiak Wilderness within the Togiak National Wildlife Refuge in the U.S. state of Alaska
Cedar Mountain Wilderness in northern Utah, United States.
This spiny forest at Ifaty, Madagascar features various Adansonia (baobab) species, Alluaudia procera (Madagascar ocotillo) and other vegetation.

Wilderness or wildlands (usually in the plural), are natural environments on Earth that have not been significantly modified by human activity or any nonurbanized land not under extensive agricultural cultivation.

Sylva, or A Discourse of Forest-Trees and the Propagation of Timber in His Majesty's Dominions, title page of the first edition (1664)

Conservation movement

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Political, environmental, and social movement that seeks to manage and protect natural resources, including animal, fungus, and plant species as well as their habitat for the future.

Political, environmental, and social movement that seeks to manage and protect natural resources, including animal, fungus, and plant species as well as their habitat for the future.

Sylva, or A Discourse of Forest-Trees and the Propagation of Timber in His Majesty's Dominions, title page of the first edition (1664)
Schlich, in the middle of the seated row, with students from the forestry school at Oxford, on a visit to the forests of Saxony in the year 1892
F. V. Hayden's map of Yellowstone National Park, 1871
Roosevelt was a leader in conservation, fighting to end the waste of natural resources.
Theodore Roosevelt with trophy killing.
Figure 1. Costa Rica divided into different areas of conservation
A conservation area's sign in the Finnish forest. It says, "A conservation area protected by law".

The conservation ethic that began to evolve included three core principles: that human activity damaged the environment, that there was a civic duty to maintain the environment for future generations, and that scientific, empirically based methods should be applied to ensure this duty was carried out.

Air pollution from a coking oven

Air pollution

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Contamination of air due to the presence of substances in the atmosphere that are harmful to the health of humans and other living beings, or cause damage to the climate or to materials.

Contamination of air due to the presence of substances in the atmosphere that are harmful to the health of humans and other living beings, or cause damage to the climate or to materials.

Air pollution from a coking oven
2016 air quality indicator – light colors have lower air quality and thus higher air pollution.
Aviation is a major source of air pollution.
Controlled burning of a field outside of Statesboro, Georgia, in preparation for spring planting
Smoking of fish over an open fire in Ghana, 2018
Dust storm approaching Stratford, Texas
Beijing air in 2005 after rain (left) and a smoggy day (right)
E-waste processing in Agbogbloshie, Ghana using open-burning of electronics to access valuable metals like copper. Open burning of plastics is common in many parts of the world without the capacity for processing. Especially without proper protections, heavy metals and other contaminates can seep into the soil, and create water pollution and air pollution.
Schematic drawing, causes and effects of air pollution: (1) greenhouse effect, (2) particulate contamination, (3) increased UV radiation, (4) acid rain, (5) increased ground-level ozone concentration, (6) increased levels of nitrogen oxides
Up to 30% of Europeans living in cities are exposed to air pollutant levels exceeding EU air quality standards. Around 98% of Europeans living in cities are exposed to levels of air pollutants deemed damaging to health by the World Health Organization's more stringent guidelines.
Share of deaths from indoor air pollution
Air quality monitoring, New Delhi, India
Share of deaths from outdoor air pollution, OWID
Comparison of footprint-based and transboundary pollution-based relationships among G20 nations for the number of PM2.5-related premature deaths.
Unprotected exposure to PM2.5 air pollution can be equivalent to smoking multiple cigarettes per day, potentially increasing the risk of cancer, which is mainly the result of environmental factors.
Share of the population exposed to air pollution levels above WHO guidelines, OWID
Artist's illustration of an advanced ET civilization with industrial pollution
Support for a ban on high-emission vehicles in city centres in Europe, China and the US from respondents to the European Investment Bank Climate Survey
Support, use and infrastructure-expansion of forms of public transport that do not cause air pollution may be a critical key alternative to pollution
Tarps and netting are often used to reduce the amount of dust released from construction sites.
Smog in Cairo
Nitrogen dioxide concentrations as measured from satellite 2002–2004
Deaths from air pollution in 2004
Before flue-gas desulfurization was installed, the emissions from this power plant in New Mexico contained excessive amounts of sulfur dioxide.
Thermal oxidisers are air pollution abatement options for hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and odorous emissions.
Deaths from air pollution per 100,000 inhabitants (IHME, 2019)
Burning of items polluting Jamestown environment in Accra, Ghana

Air pollution can cause diseases, allergies, and even death to humans; it can also cause harm to other living organisms such as animals and food crops, and may damage the natural environment (for example, climate change, ozone depletion or habitat degradation) or built environment (for example, acid rain).

Physical map of Earth

Geography

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Field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth.

Field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth.

Physical map of Earth
Political map of Earth
Digital Elevation Model (DEM)
James Cook's 1770 chart of New Zealand
The Ptolemy world map, reconstituted from Ptolemy's Geographia, written c. 150
Self portrait of Alexander von Humboldt, one of the early pioneers of geography as an academic subject in modern sense
Gerardus Mercator
Biogeography
Climatology & meteorology
Coastal geography
Environmental management
Geodesy
Geomorphology
Glaciology
Hydrology & hydrography
Landscape ecology
Oceanography
alt=a view of the supercontinent of pangea breaking up|Palaeogeography
Pedology
Quaternary science
Cultural geography
Development geography
Economic geography
Health geography
Historical & Time geog.
Political geog. & Geopolitics
Pop. geog. or Demography
Religion geography
Social geography
Transportation geography
Tourism geography
Urban geography

Geographers study the Earth's spatial and temporal distribution of phenomena, processes, and features as well as the interaction of humans and their environment.

Abiotic component

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In biology and ecology, abiotic components or abiotic factors are non-living chemical and physical parts of the environment that affect living organisms and the functioning of ecosystems.

Diagram of the structure of the Earth including its atmosphere

Outline of Earth sciences

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Provided as an overview of and topical guide to Earth science:

Provided as an overview of and topical guide to Earth science:

Diagram of the structure of the Earth including its atmosphere
A false-color composite of global oceanic and terrestrial photoautotroph abundance from September 1997 to August 2000, showing Earth's biosphere. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and ORBIMAGE.

Ecosphere – there are many subsystems that make up the natural environment (the planetary ecosystem or "ecosphere") of the Earth.

Dominique Voynet, 2008

Environmentalist

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Person who is concerned with and/or advocates for the protection of the environment.

Person who is concerned with and/or advocates for the protection of the environment.

Dominique Voynet, 2008
John Muir
Sir David Attenborough in May 2003
Peter Garrett campaigning for the 2004 Australian federal election
Al Gore, 2007
Hunter Lovins, 2007
Sergio Rossetti Morosini, 2017
Phil Radford, 2011
Hakob Sanasaryan campaignning against illegal construction of a new ore-processing facility in Sotk, 2011
Greta Thunberg, 2018
Kevin Buzzacott (Aboriginal activist) in Adelaide 2014
Nancy Pelosi meets with the 2016 Goldman Environmental Prize recipients – six individuals who have made a profound impact in their communities and throughout the world by fighting for environmental justice.

An environmentalist can be considered a supporter of the goals of the environmental movement, "a political and ethical movement that seeks to improve and protect the quality of the natural environment through changes to environmentally harmful human activities".