Natural gas

gasgas-firednatural-gasnatural gas extractionfossil gasnaturalmains gaspiped natural gasFuel gasgas industry
Natural gas (also called fossil gas) is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.wikipedia
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Methane

methane gasCH 4 liquid methane
Natural gas (also called fossil gas) is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
It is a group-14 hydride and the simplest alkane, and is the main constituent of natural gas.

Carbon dioxide

CO 2 CO2carbon dioxide (CO 2 )
Natural gas (also called fossil gas) is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium. The by-products of this processing include: ethane, propane, butanes, pentanes, and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide (which may be converted into pure sulfur), carbon dioxide, water vapor, and sometimes helium and nitrogen.
It is present in deposits of petroleum and natural gas.

Hydrogen sulfide

hydrogen sulphideH 2 SStink damp
Natural gas (also called fossil gas) is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
also occurs in volcanic gases, natural gas, and in some sources of well water.

Non-renewable resource

non-renewable resourcesnon-renewablenon-renewable energy
Natural gas is a non-renewable hydrocarbon used as a source of energy for heating, cooking, and electricity generation.
Earth minerals and metal ores, fossil fuels (coal, petroleum, natural gas) and groundwater in certain aquifers are all considered non-renewable resources, though individual elements are always conserved (except in nuclear reactions).

Alkane

alkanesparaffinparaffins
Natural gas (also called fossil gas) is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
The alkanes have two main commercial sources: petroleum (crude oil) and natural gas.

Propane

propane gaspropane tankliquid propane
The by-products of this processing include: ethane, propane, butanes, pentanes, and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide (which may be converted into pure sulfur), carbon dioxide, water vapor, and sometimes helium and nitrogen.
A by-product of natural gas processing and petroleum refining, it is commonly used as a fuel.

Ethane

C 2 H 6 dimethyldicarbon hexahydride
The by-products of this processing include: ethane, propane, butanes, pentanes, and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide (which may be converted into pure sulfur), carbon dioxide, water vapor, and sometimes helium and nitrogen.
Like many hydrocarbons, ethane is isolated on an industrial scale from natural gas and as a petrochemical by-product of petroleum refining.

Sulfur

sulphurSbrimstone
The by-products of this processing include: ethane, propane, butanes, pentanes, and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide (which may be converted into pure sulfur), carbon dioxide, water vapor, and sometimes helium and nitrogen.
Today, almost all elemental sulfur is produced as a byproduct of removing sulfur-containing contaminants from natural gas and petroleum.

Helium

Hehelium IIsuperfluid helium
Natural gas (also called fossil gas) is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium. The by-products of this processing include: ethane, propane, butanes, pentanes, and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide (which may be converted into pure sulfur), carbon dioxide, water vapor, and sometimes helium and nitrogen.
This radiogenic helium is trapped with natural gas in concentrations as great as 7% by volume, from which it is extracted commercially by a low-temperature separation process called fractional distillation.

Liquefied natural gas

LNGliquified natural gasliquid natural gas
In addition to transporting gas via pipelines for use in power generation, other end uses for natural gas include export as liquefied natural gas (LNG) or conversion of natural gas into other liquid products via gas to liquids (GTL) technologies.
Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas (predominantly methane, CH 4, with some mixture of ethane, C 2 H 6 ) that has been cooled down to liquid form for ease and safety of non-pressurized storage or transport.

Oil well

oil drillingwellwells
In the 19th century, natural gas was usually obtained as a by-product of producing oil, since the small, light gas carbon chains came out of solution as the extracted fluids underwent pressure reduction from the reservoir to the surface, similar to uncapping a soft drink bottle where the carbon dioxide effervesces.
Usually some natural gas is released along with the oil.

Royal Dutch Shell

ShellShell OilRoyal Dutch/Shell
In 2011, Royal Dutch Shell's 140,000 oilbbl per day F–T plant went into operation in Qatar.
Royal Dutch Shell PLC (lse: RDSA, ), commonly known as Shell, is an Anglo-Dutch oil and gas company headquartered in the Netherlands and incorporated in the United Kingdom.

Gas to liquids

GTLgas-to-liquidsGas to liquid
In addition to transporting gas via pipelines for use in power generation, other end uses for natural gas include export as liquefied natural gas (LNG) or conversion of natural gas into other liquid products via gas to liquids (GTL) technologies.
Gas to liquids (GTL) is a refinery process to convert natural gas or other gaseous hydrocarbons into longer-chain hydrocarbons, such as gasoline or diesel fuel.

Syngas to gasoline plus

A variety of GTL technologies have been developed, including Fischer–Tropsch (F–T), methanol to gasoline (MTG) and syngas to gasoline plus (STG+).
Syngas to gasoline plus (STG+) is a thermochemical process to convert natural gas, other gaseous hydrocarbons or gasified biomass into drop-in fuels, such as gasoline, diesel fuel or jet fuel, and organic solvents.

Coalbed methane

coal seam gascoal bed methanecoal-bed methane
Natural gas can be "associated" (found in oil fields), or "non-associated" (isolated in natural gas fields), and is also found in coal beds (as coalbed methane). The natural gas industry is extracting an increasing quantity of gas from challenging resource types: sour gas, tight gas, shale gas, and coalbed methane.
Coalbed methane (CBM or coal-bed methane), coalbed gas, coal seam gas (CSG ), or coal-mine methane (CMM) is a form of natural gas extracted from coal beds.

Petroleum

crude oiloilcrude
Petroleum is another resource and fossil fuel found close to and with natural gas.
On January 16, 1862, after an explosion of natural gas Canada's first oil gusher came into production, shooting into the air at a recorded rate of 3,000 barrels per day.

Shale gas

gasnatural gasShale
The natural gas industry is extracting an increasing quantity of gas from challenging resource types: sour gas, tight gas, shale gas, and coalbed methane.
Shale gas is natural gas that is found trapped within shale formations.

Gazprom

Gazprom ExportGaspromGazprom Dobycha Orenburg
With Gazprom, Russia is frequently the world's largest natural gas extractor.
Public Joint Stock Company Gazprom (Публи́чное акционе́рное о́бщество «Газпром», Publichnoe Aktsionernoe Obshchestvo Gazprom, abbreviated PAO Gazprom, ПАО «Газпром», ) is a large Russian company founded in 1989, which carries on the business of extraction, production, transport, and sale of natural gas.

Gas flare

flaringflare stackflare
In petroleum production gas is sometimes burned as flare gas.
When petroleum crude oil is extracted and produced from oil wells, raw natural gas associated with the oil is brought to the surface as well.

Sour gas

sour natural gasOff-gas from sour water stripper (SWS gas)sour
The natural gas industry is extracting an increasing quantity of gas from challenging resource types: sour gas, tight gas, shale gas, and coalbed methane.
Sour gas is natural gas or any other gas containing significant amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S).

Tight gas

tight formationstight sandstones
The natural gas industry is extracting an increasing quantity of gas from challenging resource types: sour gas, tight gas, shale gas, and coalbed methane.
Tight gas is natural gas produced from reservoir rocks with such low permeability that massive hydraulic fracturing is necessary to produce the well at economic rates.

Pipeline transport

pipelinepipelinesoil pipeline
In regions with a high natural gas demand (such as the US), pipelines are constructed when it is economically feasible to transport gas from a wellsite to an end consumer.
Pipelines are generally the most economical way to transport large quantities of oil, refined oil products or natural gas over land.

Fredonia, New York

FredoniaFredonia, NY
In 1821, William Hart successfully dug the first natural gas well at Fredonia, New York, United States, which led to the formation of the Fredonia Gas Light Company.
In 1821, William Hart dug the first well specifically to produce natural gas in the United States on the banks of Canadaway Creek in Fredonia.

Natural-gas condensate

condensatesnatural gas liquidscondensate
It is estimated to have 51000 km3 of natural gas and 50 e9oilbbl of natural gas condensates.
Natural-gas condensate, also called natural gas liquids, is a low-density mixture of hydrocarbon liquids that are present as gaseous components in the raw natural gas produced from many natural gas fields.

Hydraulic fracturing

frackinghydraulic frackinghydrofracking
Early shale gas wells depended on natural fractures through which gas flowed; almost all shale gas wells today require fractures artificially created by hydraulic fracturing.
The process involves the high-pressure injection of 'fracking fluid' (primarily water, containing sand or other proppants suspended with the aid of thickening agents) into a wellbore to create cracks in the deep-rock formations through which natural gas, petroleum, and brine will flow more freely.