A report on Natural gas

Natural gas burner on a natural-gas-burning stove
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Natural gas drilling rig in Texas, USA
Countries by natural gas proven reserves (2014), based on data from The World Factbook
The location of shale gas compared to other types of gas deposits
Natural gas processing plant in Aderklaa, Lower Austria
Schematic flow diagram of a typical natural gas processing plant
Natural gas extraction by countries in cubic meters per year around 2013
Polyethylene plastic main being placed in a trench
Construction close to high pressure gas transmission pipelines is discouraged, often with standing warning signs.
Peoples Gas Manlove Field natural gas storage area in Newcomb Township, Champaign County, Illinois. In the foreground (left) is one of the numerous wells for the underground storage area, with an LNG plant, and above ground storage tanks are in the background (right).
Manhole for domestic gas supply, London, UK
A Washington, D.C. Metrobus, which runs on natural gas
The warming influence (called radiative forcing) of long-lived greenhouse gases has nearly doubled in 40 years, with carbon dioxide and methane being the dominant drivers of global warming.
A pipeline odorant injection station
Gas network emergency vehicle responding to a major fire in Kyiv, Ukraine
Natural gas prices at the Henry Hub in US dollars per million BTUs
Comparison of natural gas prices in Japan, United Kingdom, and United States, 2007–2011
US Natural Gas Marketed Production 1900 to 2012 (US EIA data)
Trends in the top five natural gas-producing countries (US EIA data)

Naturally occurring mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons consisting primarily of methane in addition to various smaller amounts of other higher alkanes.

- Natural gas
Natural gas burner on a natural-gas-burning stove

111 related topics with Alpha

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Methane bubbles can be burned on a wet hand without injury.

Methane

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Chemical compound with the chemical formula .

Chemical compound with the chemical formula .

Methane bubbles can be burned on a wet hand without injury.
Testing Australian sheep for exhaled methane production (2001), CSIRO
This image represents a ruminant, specifically a sheep, producing methane in the four stages of hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis, and methanogenesis.
This diagram shows a method for producing methane sustainably. See: electrolysis, Sabatier reaction
Methane (CH4) measured by the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) in the lower atmosphere (troposphere) at stations around the world. Abundances are given as pollution free monthly mean mole fractions in parts-per-billion.
Methane (CH4) on Mars – potential sources and sinks
Alessandro Volta

It is a group-14 hydride, the simplest alkane, and the main constituent of natural gas.

Fractional distillation apparatus.

Petroleum

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Naturally occurring yellowish-black liquid mixture of mainly hydrocarbons, and is found in geological formations.

Naturally occurring yellowish-black liquid mixture of mainly hydrocarbons, and is found in geological formations.

Fractional distillation apparatus.
Oil derrick in Okemah, Oklahoma, 1922.
Shale bings near Broxburn, 3 of a total of 19 in West Lothian.
This wartime propaganda poster promoted carpooling as a way to ration vital gasoline during World War II.
Unconventional resources are much larger than conventional ones.
Octane, a hydrocarbon found in petroleum. Lines represent single bonds; black spheres represent carbon; white spheres represent hydrogen.
Structure of a vanadium porphyrin compound (left) extracted from petroleum by Alfred E. Treibs, father of organic geochemistry. Treibs noted the close structural similarity of this molecule and chlorophyll a (right).
A hydrocarbon trap consists of a reservoir rock (yellow) where oil (red) can accumulate, and a caprock (green) that prevents it from egressing.
Some marker crudes with their sulfur content (horizontal) and API gravity (vertical) and relative production quantity.
Nominal and inflation-adjusted US dollar price of crude oil, 1861–2015.
Oil consumption per capita (darker colors represent more consumption, gray represents no data) (source: see file description).
Diesel fuel spill on a road.
Seawater acidification.
Global fossil carbon emissions, an indicator of consumption, from 1800. {{legend|black|Total}}{{legend|blue|Oil}}
Rate of world energy usage per year from 1970.<ref name="BP-Report-2012">BP: Statistical Review of World Energy {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130516003736/http://www.bp.com/sectiongenericarticle800.do?categoryId=9037130&contentId=7068669 |date=May 16, 2013 }}, Workbook (xlsx), London, 2012</ref>
Daily oil consumption from 1980 to 2006.
Oil consumption by percentage of total per region from 1980 to 2006: {{legend|red|US}}{{legend|blue|Europe}}{{legend|#D1D117|Asia and Oceania}}.
Oil consumption 1980 to 2007 by region.

On January 16, 1862, after an explosion of natural gas, Canada's first oil gusher came into production, shooting into the air at a recorded rate of 3000 oilbbl per day.

A typical LNG process.

Liquefied natural gas

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A typical LNG process.
LNG life-cycle.
Global LNG import trends, by volume (in red), and as a percentage of global natural gas imports (in black) (US EIA data)
Trends in the top five LNG-importing nations as of 2009 (US EIA data)
President Trump visits the Cameron LNG Export Terminal in Louisiana, May 2019
Russian and Western politicians visit the Sakhalin-II project on 18 February 2009
LNG storage tank at EG LNG
Model of Tanker LNG Rivers, LNG capacity of 135,000 cubic metres
Interior of an LNG cargo tank
Protest against shale gas extraction in the United States, 2016
Green bordered white diamond symbol used on LNG-powered vehicles in China

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas (predominantly methane, CH4, with some mixture of ethane, C2H6) that has been cooled down to liquid form for ease and safety of non-pressurized storage or transport.

The greenhouse effect of solar radiation on the Earth's surface caused by emission of greenhouse gases.

Greenhouse gas

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Gas that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range, causing the greenhouse effect.

Gas that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range, causing the greenhouse effect.

The greenhouse effect of solar radiation on the Earth's surface caused by emission of greenhouse gases.
Radiative forcing (warming influence) of different contributors to climate change through 2019, as reported in the Sixth IPCC assessment report.
Atmospheric absorption and scattering at different wavelengths of electromagnetic waves. The largest absorption band of carbon dioxide is not far from the maximum in the thermal emission from ground, and it partly closes the window of transparency of water; hence its major effect.
Concentrations of carbon monoxide in the Spring and Fall of 2000 in the lower atmosphere showing a range from about 390 parts per billion (dark brown pixels), to 220 parts per billion (red pixels), to 50 parts per billion (blue pixels).
Increasing water vapor in the stratosphere at Boulder, Colorado
Schmidt et al. (2010) analysed how individual components of the atmosphere contribute to the total greenhouse effect. They estimated that water vapor accounts for about 50% of Earth's greenhouse effect, with clouds contributing 25%, carbon dioxide 20%, and the minor greenhouse gases and aerosols accounting for the remaining 5%. In the study, the reference model atmosphere is for 1980 conditions. Image credit: NASA.
The radiative forcing (warming influence) of long-lived atmospheric greenhouse gases has accelerated, almost doubling in 40 years.
Top: Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels as measured in the atmosphere and reflected in ice cores. Bottom: The amount of net carbon increase in the atmosphere, compared to carbon emissions from burning fossil fuel.
400,000 years of ice core data
Recent year-to-year increase of atmospheric.
Major greenhouse gas trends.
The US, China and Russia have cumulatively contributed the greatest amounts of since 1850.

The vast majority of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions come from combustion of fossil fuels, principally coal, petroleum (including oil) and natural gas, with additional contributions from cement manufacturing, fertilizer production, deforestation and other changes in land use.

A 20 lb (9.1 kg) steel propane cylinder. This cylinder is fitted with an overfill prevention device (OPD) valve, as evidenced by the trilobular handwheel.

Propane

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Three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8.

Three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8.

A 20 lb (9.1 kg) steel propane cylinder. This cylinder is fitted with an overfill prevention device (OPD) valve, as evidenced by the trilobular handwheel.
Temperature-Density curve for liquid/vapor propane
Domestic spherical steel pressure vessel for propane storage.
Pyrometry of a propane flame using thin-filament velocimetry. The hottest parts of the flame are in a hollow cone-shaped area near its base and pointing upward.
>1750 K
1700 K
1600 K
1350 K
1100 K
875 K
750 K

A by-product of natural gas processing and petroleum refining, it is commonly used as a fuel in domestic and industrial applications and in low-emissions public transportation.

Chemical structure of methane, the simplest alkane

Alkane

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Alkane, or paraffin , is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon.

Alkane, or paraffin , is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon.

Chemical structure of methane, the simplest alkane
C4 alkanes and cycloalkanes (left to right): n-butane and isobutane are the two C4H10 isomers; cyclobutane and methylcyclopropane are the two C4H8 alkane isomers.
Bicyclo[1.1.0]butane is the only C4H6 alkane and has no alkane isomer; tetrahedrane (below) is the only C4H4 alkane and so has no alkane isomer.
Tetrahedrane
Ball-and-stick model of isopentane (common name) or 2-methylbutane (IUPAC systematic name)
Melting (blue) and boiling (orange) points of the first 16 n-alkanes in °C.
sp3-hybridization in methane.
The tetrahedral structure of methane.
Newman projections of the two conformations of ethane: eclipsed on the left, staggered on the right.
Ball-and-stick models of the two rotamers of ethane
Monobromination of propane
Methane and ethane make up a tiny proportion of Jupiter's atmosphere
Extraction of oil, which contains many distinct hydrocarbons including alkanes
Methanogenic archaea in the gut of this cow are responsible for some of the methane in Earth's atmosphere.
Early spider orchid (Ophrys sphegodes)
An oil refinery at Martinez, California.

The alkanes have two main commercial sources: petroleum (crude oil) and natural gas.

Coal

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Combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, formed as rock strata called coal seams.

Combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, formed as rock strata called coal seams.

Example chemical structure of coal
Coastal exposure of the Point Aconi Seam in Nova Scotia
Coal ranking system used by the United States Geological Survey
Chinese coal miners in an illustration of the Tiangong Kaiwu encyclopedia, published in 1637
Coal miner in Britain, 1942
Coke oven at a smokeless fuel plant in Wales, United Kingdom
Production of chemicals from coal
Castle Gate Power Plant near Helper, Utah, US
Coal rail cars
Bulldozer pushing coal in Ljubljana Power Station, Slovenia
Extensive coal docks seen in Toledo, Ohio, 1895
Coal production by region
Aerial photograph of the site of the Kingston Fossil Plant coal fly ash slurry spill taken the day after the event
Protesting damage to the Great Barrier Reef caused by climate change in Australia
Tree houses for protesting the felling of part of Hambach Forest for the Hambach surface mine in Germany: after which the felling was suspended in 2018
A coal mine in Wyoming, United States. The United States has the world's largest coal reserves.

Because the slate of chemical products that can be made via coal gasification can in general also use feedstocks derived from natural gas and petroleum, the chemical industry tends to use whatever feedstocks are most cost-effective.

Average surface air temperatures from 2011 to 2021 compared to the 1956–1976 average

Climate change

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Contemporary climate change includes both global warming and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns.

Contemporary climate change includes both global warming and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns.

Average surface air temperatures from 2011 to 2021 compared to the 1956–1976 average
Change in average surface air temperature since the industrial revolution, plus drivers for that change. Human activity has caused increased temperatures, with natural forces adding some variability.
Global surface temperature reconstruction over the last 2000 years using proxy data from tree rings, corals, and ice cores in blue. Directly observed data is in red.
Drivers of climate change from 1850–1900 to 2010–2019. There was no significant contribution from internal variability or solar and volcanic drivers.
concentrations over the last 800,000 years as measured from ice cores (blue/green) and directly (black)
The Global Carbon Project shows how additions to since 1880 have been caused by different sources ramping up one after another.
The rate of global tree cover loss has approximately doubled since 2001, to an annual loss approaching an area the size of Italy.
Sea ice reflects 50% to 70% of incoming solar radiation while the dark ocean surface only reflects 6%, so melting sea ice is a self-reinforcing feedback.
Projected global surface temperature changes relative to 1850–1900, based on CMIP6 multi-model mean changes.
The sixth IPCC Assessment Report projects changes in average soil moisture that can disrupt agriculture and ecosystems. A reduction in soil moisture by one standard deviation means that average soil moisture will approximately match the ninth driest year between 1850 and 1900 at that location.
Historical sea level reconstruction and projections up to 2100 published in 2017 by the U.S. Global Change Research Program
The IPCC Sixth Assessment Report (2021) projects that extreme weather will be progressively more common as the Earth warms.
Scenarios of global greenhouse gas emissions. If all countries achieve their current Paris Agreement pledges, average warming by 2100 would still significantly exceed the maximum 2 °C target set by the Agreement.
Coal, oil, and natural gas remain the primary global energy sources even as renewables have begun rapidly increasing.
Economic sectors with more greenhouse gas contributions have a greater stake in climate change policies.
Most emissions have been absorbed by carbon sinks, including plant growth, soil uptake, and ocean uptake (2020 Global Carbon Budget).
Since 2000, rising emissions in China and the rest of world have surpassed the output of the United States and Europe.
Per person, the United States generates at a far faster rate than other primary regions.
Academic studies of scientific consensus reflect that the level of consensus correlates with expertise in climate science.
Data has been cherry picked from short periods to falsely assert that global temperatures are not rising. Blue trendlines show short periods that mask longer-term warming trends (red trendlines). Blue dots show the so-called global warming hiatus.
The 2017 People's Climate March took place in hundreds of locations. Shown: the Washington, D.C. march, protesting policies of then-U.S. President Trump.
Tyndall's ratio spectrophotometer (drawing from 1861) measured how much infrared radiation was absorbed and emitted by various gases filling its central tube.
alt=Underwater photograph of branching coral that is bleached white|Ecological collapse. Bleaching has damaged the Great Barrier Reef and threatens reefs worldwide.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://sos.noaa.gov/datasets/coral-reef-risk-outlook/|title=Coral Reef Risk Outlook|access-date=4 April 2020|publisher=National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration|quote=At present, local human activities, coupled with past thermal stress, threaten an estimated 75 percent of the world's reefs. By 2030, estimates predict more than 90% of the world's reefs will be threatened by local human activities, warming, and acidification, with nearly 60% facing high, very high, or critical threat levels.}}</ref>
alt=Photograph of evening in a valley settlement. The skyline in the hills beyond is lit up red from the fires.|Extreme weather. Drought and high temperatures worsened the 2020 bushfires in Australia.<ref>{{harvnb|Carbon Brief, 7 January|2020}}.</ref>
alt=The green landscape is interrupted by a huge muddy scar where the ground has subsided.|Arctic warming. Permafrost thaws undermine infrastructure and release methane, a greenhouse gas.
alt=An emaciated polar bear stands atop the remains of a melting ice floe.|Habitat destruction. Many arctic animals rely on sea ice, which has been disappearing in a warming Arctic.<ref>{{harvnb|IPCC AR5 WG2 Ch28|2014|p=1596|ps=: "Within 50 to 70 years, loss of hunting habitats may lead to elimination of polar bears from seasonally ice-covered areas, where two-thirds of their world population currently live."}}</ref>
alt=Photograph of a large area of forest. The green trees are interspersed with large patches of damaged or dead trees turning purple-brown and light red.|Pest propagation. Mild winters allow more pine beetles to survive to kill large swaths of forest.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.nps.gov/romo/learn/nature/climatechange.htm|title=What a changing climate means for Rocky Mountain National Park|publisher=National Park Service|access-date=9 April 2020}}</ref>
Environmental migration. Sparser rainfall leads to desertification that harms agriculture and can displace populations. Shown: Telly, Mali (2008).<ref>{{harvnb|Serdeczny|Adams|Baarsch|Coumou|2016}}.</ref>
Agricultural changes. Droughts, rising temperatures, and extreme weather negatively impact agriculture. Shown: Texas, US (2013).<ref>{{harvnb|IPCC SRCCL Ch5|2019|pp=439, 464}}.</ref>
Tidal flooding. Sea-level rise increases flooding in low-lying coastal regions. Shown: Venice, Italy (2004).<ref name="NOAAnuisance">{{cite web|url=http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/nuisance-flooding.html |title=What is nuisance flooding? |author=National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration |access-date=April 8, 2020}}</ref>
Storm intensification. Bangladesh after Cyclone Sidr (2007) is an example of catastrophic flooding from increased rainfall.<ref>{{harvnb|Kabir|Khan|Ball|Caldwell|2016}}.</ref>
Heat wave intensification. Events like the June 2019 European heat wave are becoming more common.<ref>{{harvnb|Van Oldenborgh|Philip|Kew|Vautard|2019}}.</ref>

Human activity since the Industrial Revolution, mainly extracting and burning fossil fuels (coal, oil, and natural gas), has increased the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, resulting in a radiative imbalance.

Ball-and-stick model of the methane molecule, CH4. Methane is part of a homologous series known as the alkanes, which contain single bonds only.

Hydrocarbon

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Organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.

Organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.

Ball-and-stick model of the methane molecule, CH4. Methane is part of a homologous series known as the alkanes, which contain single bonds only.
Oil refineries are one way hydrocarbons are processed for use. Crude oil is processed in several stages to form desired hydrocarbons, used as fuel and in other products.
Tank wagon 33 80 7920 362-0 with hydrocarbon gas at Bahnhof Enns (2018).
Natural oil spring in Korňa, Slovakia.

In the oil & gas industry, hydrocarbon is a generalised term, which combines petroleum and natural gas as the two naturally occurring phases of hydrocarbon commoditised by the sector.

As a solid, sulfur is a characteristic lemon yellow; when burned, sulfur melts into a blood-red liquid and emits a blue flame.

Sulfur

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Chemical element with the symbol S and atomic number 16.

Chemical element with the symbol S and atomic number 16.

As a solid, sulfur is a characteristic lemon yellow; when burned, sulfur melts into a blood-red liquid and emits a blue flame.
Sulfur vat from which railroad cars are loaded, Freeport Sulphur Co., Hoskins Mound, Texas (1943)
Most of the yellow and orange hues of Io are due to elemental sulfur and sulfur compounds deposited by active volcanoes.
Sulfur extraction, East Java
A man carrying sulfur blocks from Kawah Ijen, a volcano in East Java, Indonesia, 2009
The structure of the cyclooctasulfur molecule, S8
Lapis lazuli owes its blue color to a trisulfur radical anion
Two parallel sulfur chains grown inside a single-wall carbon nanotube (CNT, a). Zig-zag (b) and straight (c) S chains inside double-wall CNTs
Pharmaceutical container for sulfur from the first half of the 20th century. From the Museo del Objeto del Objeto collection
Traditional sulfur mining at Ijen Volcano, East Java, Indonesia. This image shows the dangerous and rugged conditions the miners face, including toxic smoke and high drops, as well as their lack of protective equipment. The pipes over which they are standing are for condensing sulfur vapors.
Sulfur recovered from hydrocarbons in Alberta, stockpiled for shipment in North Vancouver, British Columbia
Production and price (US market) of elemental sulfur
Sulfuric acid production in 2000
Sulfur candle originally sold for home fumigation
Schematic representation of disulfide bridges between two protein helices
Effect of acid rain on a forest, Jizera Mountains, Czech Republic
Allicin, a chemical compound in garlic
(R)-cysteine, an amino acid containing a thiol group
Methionine, an amino acid containing a thioether
Diphenyl disulfide, a representative disulfide
Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid, a surfactant
Dibenzothiophene, a component of crude oil
Penicillin, an antibiotic where "R" is the variable group

Today, almost all elemental sulfur is produced as a byproduct of removing sulfur-containing contaminants from natural gas and petroleum.