Natural language

linguisticnaturalnatural languageslanguagenatural-languagehuman languagenatural speechnaturallyhuman languageslinguistically
In neuropsychology, linguistics, and the philosophy of language, a natural language or ordinary language is any language that has evolved naturally in humans through use and repetition without conscious planning or premeditation.wikipedia
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Language

languageslinguisticlinguistic diversity
In neuropsychology, linguistics, and the philosophy of language, a natural language or ordinary language is any language that has evolved naturally in humans through use and repetition without conscious planning or premeditation.
Natural languages are spoken or signed, but any language can be encoded into secondary media using auditory, visual, or tactile stimuli – for example, in writing, whistling, signing, or braille.

Constructed language

constructedconlangconstructed languages
They are distinguished from constructed and formal languages such as those used to program computers or to study logic. But even an official language with a regulating academy, such as Standard French with the French Academy, is classified as a natural language (for example, in the field of natural language processing), as its prescriptive points do not make it either constructed enough to be classified as a constructed language or controlled enough to be classified as a controlled natural language. Though the exact definition varies between scholars, natural language can broadly be defined in contrast to artificial or constructed languages (such as computer programming languages and international auxiliary languages) and to other communication systems in nature.
A constructed language (sometimes called a conlang) is a language whose phonology, grammar, and vocabulary, instead of having developed naturally, are consciously devised.

Logic

logicianlogicallogics
They are distinguished from constructed and formal languages such as those used to program computers or to study logic.
Philosophical logic deals with formal descriptions of ordinary, non-specialist ("natural") language, that is strictly only about the arguments within philosophy's other branches.

Formal language

formal language theoryformal languageslanguage
They are distinguished from constructed and formal languages such as those used to program computers or to study logic.
Formal language theory sprang out of linguistics, as a way of understanding the syntactic regularities of natural languages.

Programming language

programming languageslanguagedialect
They are distinguished from constructed and formal languages such as those used to program computers or to study logic. Though the exact definition varies between scholars, natural language can broadly be defined in contrast to artificial or constructed languages (such as computer programming languages and international auxiliary languages) and to other communication systems in nature.

Syntax

syntacticsyntacticalsyntactically
Such examples include bees' waggle dance and whale song, to which researchers have found or applied the linguistic cognates of dialect and even syntax.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences (sentence structure) in a given language, usually including word order.

List of language regulators

language regulatorlanguage academyregulatory body
All language varieties of world languages are natural languages, although some varieties are subject to greater degrees of published prescriptivism or language regulation than others.
They instead remain natural languages to a considerable extent and are thus not formal languages such as Attempto Controlled English.

Natural language processing

NLPnatural languagenatural-language processing
But even an official language with a regulating academy, such as Standard French with the French Academy, is classified as a natural language (for example, in the field of natural language processing), as its prescriptive points do not make it either constructed enough to be classified as a constructed language or controlled enough to be classified as a controlled natural language.
Natural language processing (NLP) is a subfield of linguistics, computer science, information engineering, and artificial intelligence concerned with the interactions between computers and human (natural) languages, in particular how to program computers to process and analyze large amounts of natural language data.

Controlled natural language

controlled languagecontrolledcontrolled versions
But even an official language with a regulating academy, such as Standard French with the French Academy, is classified as a natural language (for example, in the field of natural language processing), as its prescriptive points do not make it either constructed enough to be classified as a constructed language or controlled enough to be classified as a controlled natural language.
Controlled natural languages (CNLs) are subsets of natural languages that are obtained by restricting the grammar and vocabulary in order to reduce or eliminate ambiguity and complexity.

Evolutionary linguistics

language evolutionlinguistic evolutionevolution of language
In neuropsychology, linguistics, and the philosophy of language, a natural language or ordinary language is any language that has evolved naturally in humans through use and repetition without conscious planning or premeditation.
This is a purely descriptive approach to what we mean by "natural language" without attempting to address its emergence.

Language interpretation

interpreterinterpretersinterpreting
Natural languages can take different forms, such as speech or signing.
Such activities involve considerable effort on the part of the translator, since sign languages are distinct natural languages with their own construction and syntax, different from the aural version of the same principal language.

Creole language

creolecreolescreole languages
Some natural languages have become naturally "standardized" by children's natural tendency to correct for illogical grammatical structures in their parents' speech, which can be seen in the development of pidgin languages into creole languages (as explained by Steven Pinker in The Language Instinct), but this is not the case in many languages, including constructed languages such as Esperanto, where strict rules are in place as an attempt to consciously remove such irregularities.
A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable natural language that develops from the simplifying and mixing of different languages within a fairly brief period of time: often, a pidgin evolved into a full-fledged language.

Formal semantics (linguistics)

formal semanticsFormal Linguisticsformal semantic analyses
In linguistics, formal semantics seeks to understand linguistic meaning by constructing precise mathematical models of the principles that speakers use to define relations between expressions in a natural language and the world that supports meaningful discourse.

Regular and irregular verbs

irregular verbirregular verbsirregular
Controlled natural languages are subsets of natural languages whose grammars and dictionaries have been restricted in order to reduce or eliminate both ambiguity and complexity (for instance, by cutting down on rarely used superlative or adverbial forms or irregular verbs).
Most natural languages, to different extents, have a number of irregular verbs.

Neuropsychology

neuropsychologicalneuropsychologistneuropsychologists
In neuropsychology, linguistics, and the philosophy of language, a natural language or ordinary language is any language that has evolved naturally in humans through use and repetition without conscious planning or premeditation.

Linguistics

linguistlinguisticlinguists
In neuropsychology, linguistics, and the philosophy of language, a natural language or ordinary language is any language that has evolved naturally in humans through use and repetition without conscious planning or premeditation.

Philosophy of language

languagephilosopher of languagetheory of reference
In neuropsychology, linguistics, and the philosophy of language, a natural language or ordinary language is any language that has evolved naturally in humans through use and repetition without conscious planning or premeditation.

Human

humanshuman beinghuman beings
In neuropsychology, linguistics, and the philosophy of language, a natural language or ordinary language is any language that has evolved naturally in humans through use and repetition without conscious planning or premeditation.

Spoken language

oral languagespokenspeech
Natural languages can take different forms, such as speech or signing.

International auxiliary language

auxiliary languageinternational languageauxiliary languages
Though the exact definition varies between scholars, natural language can broadly be defined in contrast to artificial or constructed languages (such as computer programming languages and international auxiliary languages) and to other communication systems in nature.

Biocommunication (science)

biocommunicationcommunication systems in nature
Though the exact definition varies between scholars, natural language can broadly be defined in contrast to artificial or constructed languages (such as computer programming languages and international auxiliary languages) and to other communication systems in nature.

Waggle dance

bee danceBee dancescomplex dances
Such examples include bees' waggle dance and whale song, to which researchers have found or applied the linguistic cognates of dialect and even syntax.

Whale vocalization

whale songwhale songswhale call
Such examples include bees' waggle dance and whale song, to which researchers have found or applied the linguistic cognates of dialect and even syntax.

Dialect

dialectsregiolectdialectal
Such examples include bees' waggle dance and whale song, to which researchers have found or applied the linguistic cognates of dialect and even syntax.

Variety (linguistics)

varietiesvarietylect
All language varieties of world languages are natural languages, although some varieties are subject to greater degrees of published prescriptivism or language regulation than others.