Natural science

natural sciencesnaturalnatural scientistsciencenaturalistsciencesnatural scientistsscientificnaturalistsnatural scientific
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.wikipedia
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Outline of physical science

physical sciencesphysical sciencephysical
Natural science can be divided into two main branches: life science (or biological science) and physical science.
Physical science is a branch of natural science that studies non-living systems, in contrast to life science.

Physics

physicistphysicalphysicists
Physical science is subdivided into branches, including physics, chemistry, astronomy and earth science.
Physics (from, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matter and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force.

Astronomy

astronomicalastronomerastronomers
Physical science is subdivided into branches, including physics, chemistry, astronomy and earth science.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.

Earth science

geoscienceearth sciencesgeosciences
Physical science is subdivided into branches, including physics, chemistry, astronomy and earth science.
Earth science or geoscience includes all fields of natural science related to the planet Earth.

Branches of science

scientific disciplineField of sciencescientific field
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.
Natural sciences: the study of natural phenomena (including cosmological, geological, physical, chemical, and biological factors of the universe)

List of life sciences

life scienceslife sciencebioscience
Natural science can be divided into two main branches: life science (or biological science) and physical science.
Life science is one of the two major branches of natural science, the other being physical science, which is concerned with non-living matter.

Scientific law

lawlawsempirical law
In Western society's analytic tradition, the empirical sciences and especially natural sciences use tools from formal sciences, such as mathematics and logic, converting information about nature into measurements which can be explained as clear statements of the "laws of nature".
The term law has diverse usage in many cases (approximate, accurate, broad, or narrow theories) across all fields of natural science (physics, chemistry, biology, geology, astronomy, etc.).

Analytic philosophy

Analyticanalytic philosopheranalytical philosophy
In Western society's analytic tradition, the empirical sciences and especially natural sciences use tools from formal sciences, such as mathematics and logic, converting information about nature into measurements which can be explained as clear statements of the "laws of nature".
As a philosophical practice, it is characterized by an emphasis on argumentative clarity and precision, often making use of formal logic, conceptual analysis, and, to a lesser degree, mathematics and the natural sciences.

Social science

social sciencessocial scientistsocial
The social sciences also use such methods, but rely more on qualitative research, so that they are sometimes called "soft science", whereas natural sciences, insofar as they emphasize quantifiable data produced, tested, and confirmed through the scientific method, are sometimes called "hard science".
Positivist social scientists use methods resembling those of the natural sciences as tools for understanding society, and so define science in its stricter modern sense.

Qualitative research

qualitativequalitative methodsqualitative analysis
The social sciences also use such methods, but rely more on qualitative research, so that they are sometimes called "soft science", whereas natural sciences, insofar as they emphasize quantifiable data produced, tested, and confirmed through the scientific method, are sometimes called "hard science".
Qualitative research approaches are employed across many academic disciplines, focusing particularly on the human elements of the social and natural sciences; in less academic contexts, areas of application include qualitative market research, business, service demonstrations by non-profits, and journalism.

Natural philosophy

natural philosophernatural philosophersNatural
Modern natural science succeeded more classical approaches to natural philosophy, usually traced to ancient Greece.
It is considered to be the precursor of natural science.

Hard and soft science

hard sciencehard sciencessoft sciences
The social sciences also use such methods, but rely more on qualitative research, so that they are sometimes called "soft science", whereas natural sciences, insofar as they emphasize quantifiable data produced, tested, and confirmed through the scientific method, are sometimes called "hard science".
Roughly speaking, the natural sciences (e.g. biology, chemistry, physics) are considered "hard", whereas the social sciences (e.g. economics, psychology, sociology) are usually described as "soft".

Formal science

formal sciencesformalformal disciplines
In Western society's analytic tradition, the empirical sciences and especially natural sciences use tools from formal sciences, such as mathematics and logic, converting information about nature into measurements which can be explained as clear statements of the "laws of nature".
Whereas the natural sciences and social sciences seek to characterize physical systems and social systems, respectively, using empirical methods, the formal sciences are language tools concerned with characterizing abstract structures described by sign systems.

Quantification (science)

quantificationquantifyquantitation
The social sciences also use such methods, but rely more on qualitative research, so that they are sometimes called "soft science", whereas natural sciences, insofar as they emphasize quantifiable data produced, tested, and confirmed through the scientific method, are sometimes called "hard science".
Some measure of the undisputed general importance of quantification in the natural sciences can be gleaned from the following comments:

Ecology

ecologicalecologistecologically
The scale of study can range from sub-component biophysics up to complex ecologies.
Modern ecology became a much more rigorous science in the late 19th century.

Scientific method

scientific researchscientificmethod
The social sciences also use such methods, but rely more on qualitative research, so that they are sometimes called "soft science", whereas natural sciences, insofar as they emphasize quantifiable data produced, tested, and confirmed through the scientific method, are sometimes called "hard science".
These methodological elements and organization of procedures tend to be more characteristic of natural sciences than social sciences.

Alchemy

alchemistalchemicalalchemists
Early experiments in chemistry had their roots in the system of Alchemy, a set of beliefs combining mysticism with physical experiments.
The former is pursued by historians of the physical sciences who examine the subject in terms of early chemistry, medicine, and charlatanism, and the philosophical and religious contexts in which these events occurred.

Mathematics

mathematicalmathmathematician
Physics relies heavily on mathematics as the logical framework for formulation and quantification of principles.
Mathematics is essential in many fields, including natural science, engineering, medicine, finance, and the social sciences.

Conservation of mass

law of conservation of massconservation of mattermass conservation
The science of chemistry began to develop with the work of Robert Boyle, the discoverer of gas, and Antoine Lavoisier, who developed the theory of the Conservation of mass.
The formulation of this law was of crucial importance in the progress from alchemy to the modern natural science of chemistry.

Geophysics

geophysicistgeophysicalgeophysicists
Earth science (also known as geoscience), is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth, including geology, geophysics, hydrology, meteorology, physical geography, oceanography, and soil science.
Geophysics is a subject of natural science concerned with the physical processes and physical properties of the Earth and its surrounding space environment, and the use of quantitative methods for their analysis.

Physical geography

physiographicphysiographyphysiographically
Earth science (also known as geoscience), is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth, including geology, geophysics, hydrology, meteorology, physical geography, oceanography, and soil science.
Physical geography is the branch of natural science which deals with the study of processes and patterns in the natural environment like the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere, as opposed to the cultural or built environment, the domain of human geography.

René Descartes

DescartesCartesianDescartes, René
Galileo, Descartes, Bacon, and Newton debated the benefits of using approaches which were more mathematical and more experimental in a methodical way.
Descartes is often regarded as the first thinker to emphasize the use of reason to develop the natural sciences.

Geology

geologicalgeologistgeologic
Earth science (also known as geoscience), is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth, including geology, geophysics, hydrology, meteorology, physical geography, oceanography, and soil science.
Methods for relative dating were developed when geology first emerged as a natural science.

Matter

corporealsubstancematerial
Materials science is a relatively new, interdisciplinary field which deals with the study of matter and its properties; as well as the discovery and design of new materials.
For much of the history of the natural sciences people have contemplated the exact nature of matter.

Aristotle

AristotelianAristotelianismAristote
Aristotle, however, a student of Plato who lived from 384 to 322 BC, paid closer attention to the natural world in his philosophy.
Aristotle's views on natural sciences represent the groundwork underlying many of his works.