Naturalization

naturalizednaturalized citizennaturalisednaturalisationnaturalizenaturalised citizendenaturalizationnaturalized American citizennaturalized citizensnaturalise
Naturalization (or naturalisation) is the legal act or process by which a non-citizen of a country may acquire citizenship or nationality of that country.wikipedia
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Citizenship

citizencitizensburgher
Naturalization (or naturalisation) is the legal act or process by which a non-citizen of a country may acquire citizenship or nationality of that country.

Multiple citizenship

dual citizenshipdual citizendual nationality
To counter multiple citizenship, most countries require that applicants for naturalization renounce any other citizenship that they currently hold, but whether this renunciation actually causes loss of original citizenship, as seen by the host country and by the original country, will depend on the laws of the countries involved.
This may be by requiring an applicant for naturalization to renounce all existing citizenship, or by withdrawing its citizenship from someone who voluntarily acquires another citizenship, or by other devices.

Loss of citizenship

Denaturalizationlose his/her nationalityloses citizenship
To counter multiple citizenship, most countries require that applicants for naturalization renounce any other citizenship that they currently hold, but whether this renunciation actually causes loss of original citizenship, as seen by the host country and by the original country, will depend on the laws of the countries involved.
It is a blanket term covering both involuntary loss of citizenship, such as through denaturalization, as well as voluntary renunciation of citizenship.

Life in the United Kingdom test

Life in the UK testLife in the United KingdomBritish Citizenship Test
The Life in the United Kingdom test is a computer-based test constituting one of the requirements for anyone seeking Indefinite Leave to Remain in the UK or naturalisation as a British citizen.

Indefinite leave to remain

leave to remainleave to remain in the UKILR
Settled status is central to British nationality law, as the most usual route to naturalisation or registration as a British citizen requires that the applicant be settled in the UK.

Australian nationality law

Australian citizenshipAustralianAustralian citizen
Australian citizenship law is administered by the Department of Home Affairs which can issue certificates of citizenship on naturalisation or on request provide other proof or evidence of Australian citizenship.

Globalization

globalisationglobalizedglobal
The massive increase in population flux due to globalization and the sharp increase in the numbers of refugees following World War I created a large number of stateless persons, people who were not citizens of any state.
Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take-up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.

Statelessness

statelessstateless personstateless persons
The massive increase in population flux due to globalization and the sharp increase in the numbers of refugees following World War I created a large number of stateless persons, people who were not citizens of any state.
Individuals born outside Canada can now become Canadian citizens by descent only if at least one of their parents was either a native-born citizen or a naturalised citizen of Canada.

Hannah Arendt

ArendtArendt, HannahH Arendt
As Hannah Arendt pointed out, internment camps became the "only nation" of such stateless people, since they were often considered "undesirable" and were stuck in an illegal situation, wherein their country had expelled them or deprived them of their nationality, while they had not been naturalized, thus living in a judicial no man's land.
In 1950, Arendt also became a naturalized citizen of the United States.

Chinese nationality law

ChineseNationality Law of the People's Republic of ChinaChinese citizens
According to the conditions outlined in the Nationality Law of the People's Republic of China, authorities may also require "any other material that the authority believes are related to the nationality application".
An example would be a Chinese woman marries a man from a country observing jus matrimonii (e.g. Iran), in which case she automatically becomes an Iranian national upon marriage.

Canadian nationality law

Canadian citizenshipCanadian citizenCanadian
It can also be granted to a permanent resident who has lived in Canada for a period of time through naturalization.

Austrian nationality law

Austrian citizenshipAustrianAustrian citizen
Citizenship was granted based on either descent or marriage, or via naturalization after ten years of residence (or on the acquisition of an official function).

Barbadian nationality law

Barbados nationality lawBarbadoscitizen of Barbados
Non-Commonwealth citizens may apply to the Minister for naturalization if they fulfill certain requirements, such as residing in Barbados for 5 of the 7 years prior to the application and all 12 .onths prior to the application (or any 12 continuous months within 6 months of the application, contingent upon the Minister's approval) and intends to reside in Barbados thereafter and swears allegiance to the Queen of Barbados.

Law of Return

entitled to Israeli citizenship from birthIsraelJewish Law of Return
The Israeli parliament created two laws regarding immigration, citizenship and naturalization: the Law of Return and the Israeli nationality law.

Cypriot nationality law

Cypriot citizenshipCypriot nationalitycitizenship
Naturalisation is referred to as the process for which a non-citizen of a country, in this case Cyprus, may become a citizen of that country.

Irish nationality law

IrishIrish citizenshipIrish citizen
A person may be an Irish citizen through birth, descent, marriage to an Irish citizen or through naturalisation.

Citizenship of the United States

United States citizenAmericanU.S. citizen
"The sole authority to naturalize persons as citizens of the United States is conferred upon the Attorney General."
In 1868, the Fourteenth Amendment specifically defined persons who were either born or naturalized in the United States and subject to its jurisdiction as citizens.

French nationality law

FrenchFrench citizenshipFrench citizen
Since immigration became increasingly a political theme in the 1980s, both left-wing and right-wing governments have issued several laws restricting the possibilities of being naturalized.

Greek nationality law

Greek citizenshipGreek citizenGreek citizens
Greek citizenship may be acquired by descent or through naturalization.

Japanese nationality law

Japanese citizenshipJapaneseJapanese nationality
Japanese nationality is a legal designation and set of rights granted to those people who have met the criteria for citizenship by parentage or by naturalization.

Bhutanese nationality law

Bhutanese Citizenship Act 1985Citizenship Act of 1985Bhutanese citizenship
The fourth article of the Act provides a substantive and procedural framework for naturalization.

Hungarian nationality law

Hungarian citizenshipHungarian citizenHungarian citizens
Hungarian citizenship can be acquired by descent from a Hungarian parent, or by naturalisation.

Naturalization Act of 1795

Declaration of Intention
The Naturalization Act of 1795 set the initial rules on naturalization: "free, White persons" who had been resident for five years or more.
The 1795 Act differed from the 1790 Act by increasing the period of required residence from two to five years in the United States, by introducing the Declaration of Intention requirement, or "first papers", which created a two-step naturalization process, and by omitting the term "natural born."

Lithuanian nationality law

LithuaniaLithuanianLithuanian citizens
Lithuanian nationality law operates on the jus sanguinus principle, whereby persons who have a claim to Lithuanian ancestry, either through parents, grandparents, great-grandparents may claim Lithuanian nationality.. Citizenship may also be granted by naturalization.