Nature reserve

biosphere reservenature preservewildlife sanctuarywildlife refugenatural reservenature reserveswildlife reservereserveforest reservewildlife preserve
A nature reserve may also be known as a natural reserve, wildlife refuge or sanctuary, biosphere reserve (bioreserve), natural or nature preserve, or nature conservation area.wikipedia
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Zapovednik

List of Russian Nature Reserves (class 1a 'zapovedniks')Nature reserves of Russia (zapovedniks)List of Russian Nature Reserves (class 1a "zapovedniks")
The first major nature reserve was Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming, United States, followed by the Royal National Park near Sydney, Australia and the Barguzin Nature Reserve of Imperial Russia, the first of zapovedniks set up by a federal government entirely for the scientific study of nature.
Other types of protected areas include national nature parks, zakazniks (referring to "state game reserve" because a limited amount of hunting is allowed there), nature monuments (often individual trees, geological exposures, or other small areas), etc. Some zapovedniks are recognized as biosphere reserves (or sanctuaries).

Barguzin Nature Reserve

BarguzinskyiZapovednik, Barguzinsky
The first major nature reserve was Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming, United States, followed by the Royal National Park near Sydney, Australia and the Barguzin Nature Reserve of Imperial Russia, the first of zapovedniks set up by a federal government entirely for the scientific study of nature.
Barguzinsky Nature Reserve is the oldest of zapovedniks (nature reserves).

Nest box

birdhousebird housenestbox
Waterton invented artificial nest boxes to house starlings, jackdaws and sand martins; and unsuccessfully attempted to introduce little owls from Italy.
The nest box was invented by the British conservationist Charles Waterton in the early 19th century to encourage more birdlife and wildfowl on the nature reserve he set up on his estate.

Alam-Pedja Nature Reserve

Alam-Pedja
The largest nature reserve in Estonia is Alam-Pedja Nature Reserve, which covers 342 km2.
Alam-Pedja Nature Reserve (Alam-Pedja looduskaitseala) is the largest nature reserve in Estonia.

Walton Hall, West Yorkshire

Walton Hall
The world's first modern nature reserve was established in 1821 by the naturalist and explorer Charles Waterton around his estate in Walton Hall, West Yorkshire.
It was the ancestral home of the naturalist and traveller Charles Waterton, who made Walton Hall into the world's first wildfowl and nature reserve.

Pro Natura (Switzerland)

Pro NaturaSwiss League for the Protection of NatureNature centres of Pro Natura
The environmental organization Pro Natura takes care of about 650 nature reserves of various sizes throughout Switzerland (250 square kilometers).
Pro Natura takes care of about 700 nature reserves of various sizes throughout Switzerland (250 square kilometres, of which 60 square kilometres are owned by Pro Natura).

Nature park

natural parknature parksNature Park Thuringia Wald
Normally it is more strictly protected than a nature park.
§ 27 of the BnatSchG determines that natural parks are large areas that are to be developed and managed as a single unit, that consist mainly of protected landscapes or nature reserves, that have a large variety of species and habitats and that have a landscape that exhibits a variety of uses.

Protected area

conservation areaprotected areasprotected landscape
It is a protected area of importance for flora, fauna, or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for purposes of conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research.

Charles Waterton

The world's first modern nature reserve was established in 1821 by the naturalist and explorer Charles Waterton around his estate in Walton Hall, West Yorkshire.
In the 1820s Waterton returned to Walton Hall and built a nine-foot-high wall around three miles (5 km) of the estate, turning it into the world's first wildfowl and nature reserve, making him one of the world's first environmentalists.

National park

national parksnationalNP
Denmark has three national parks and several nature reserves, some of them inside the national park areas.
In some European and Asian countries, however, national protection and nature reserves already existed, such as a part of the Forest of Fontainebleau (France, 1861).

Bosawás Biosphere Reserve

BosawasBosawas Biosphere ReserveBosawás
Nearly one-fifth of the territory is designated as protected areas like national parks, nature reserves (including the Bosawás Biosphere Reserve), and biological reserves.
The Bosawás Biosphere Reserve in the northern part of state Jinotega (border with Honduras), Nicaragua is a hilly tropical forest designated in 1997 as a UNESCO biosphere reserve.

Game reserve

hunting reservegame reservesreserve
South Africa also has a number of World Heritage Sites and provincial game reserves including Shamwari, Londolozi, Sanbona and Lalibela.
If hunting is prohibited, a game reserve may be considered a nature reserve; however, the focus of a game reserve is specifically the animals (fauna), whereas a nature reserve is also, if not equally, concerned with all aspects of native biota of the area (plants, animals, fungi, etc.).

Nature parks in Switzerland

nature park
In addition to the Swiss National Park, Switzerland also has sixteen regional nature parks.
The environmental organisation Pro Natura takes care of about 650 nature reserves of various sizes throughout Switzerland (250 square kilometres).

Local nature reserve

LNRLocal Nature Reserveslocal reserves
There are now over 1,050 local nature reserves in England.
Local nature reserve (LNR) is a designation for nature reserves in Great Britain.

Nicaragua

NicaraguanRepublic of NicaraguaNIC
In Nicaragua, the Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources (MARENA) is in charge of environmental protection and of the study, planning, and management of Nicaragua's natural resources.
These include wildlife refuges and nature reserves that shelter a wide range of ecosystems.

Lake Merritt

Lake Merritt ChannelLake Merritt Slough
The first North American wildlife refuge, Lake Merritt Wildlife sanctuary at Lake Merritt, was established by Samuel Merritt and enacted in California state law in 1870 as the first government owned refuge.
In order to protect the birds from duck hunters and stop the noise and danger of gunfire so close to the city, Dr. Merritt proposed to turn the lake into a wildlife refuge in 1869.

Sri Lanka

CeylonCeyloneseDemocratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
Cultural practices that roughly equate to the establishment and maintenance of reserved areas for animals date back to antiquity, with King Tissa of Ceylon establishing one of the world's earliest wildlife sanctuaries in the 3rd century BC.
The island has four biosphere reserves: Bundala, Hurulu Forest Reserve, the Kanneliya-Dediyagala-Nakiyadeniya, and Sinharaja.

Wilbur Hot Springs

Wilbur Hot Springs' Dr. Richard Louis Miller donated 1800 acre of land in this manner and is an example of this type of private nature reserve.
Wilbur Hot Springs is a naturally occurring historic hot spring, health sanctuary, personal retreat and 1800 acre nature reserve in Williams, Colusa County, in northern California, United States, about 2 hours northeast of the San Francisco Bay Area and 1½ hours north of the Sacramento Airport.

Danube Delta

DeltaDanube estuaryDanube
About 5.18% of the area of Romania has a protected status (12,360 km²), including the Danube Delta, which makes up half of this area (2.43% of Romania's total area).
In 1998, under UNESCO's Programme on Man and the Biosphere, the 6,264.03 km 2 of the Danube Delta were established as a biosphere reserve, shared by Romania and Ukraine.

Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

Zone of alienationexclusion zoneChernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Exclusion Zone
Unofficial sanctuaries can also occur as a result of human accidents; the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone has in practice become a wildlife refuge since very few people live in the area.
Though it will be years before researchers collect the necessary data to fully understand the effects, for now, the area is essentially one of Europe's largest nature preserves.

Half-Earth

Half-Earth: Our Planet's Fight for Life is a 2016 book by the biologist E. O. Wilson, in which the author proposes that half of the Earth's surface should be designated a human-free natural reserve to preserve biodiversity.

Refuge (ecology)

refugerefugesharborage
In human-managed systems like these, heavily hunted areas act as a sink in which animals die faster than they reproduce, but are replaced by animals migrating from the protected nature reserve area.

National nature reserves in England

National Nature ReserveNational Nature ReservesNNR
At the end of March 2004, there were 215 national nature reserves in England with a total area of 879 square kilometers.

Biodiversity

diversitybiological diversitybiodiverse
In total, they cover almost 40,000 ha—an impressive natural resource which makes an important contribution to England's biodiversity.
Wildlife sanctuaries aim only at the conservation of species and have the following features: