Nature versus nurture

nature and nurturenurturenature vs. nurtureenvironmentnature-nurture debatenature or nurturenaturenature vs nurturenature vs. nurture debatenature-nurture dichotomy
The nature versus nurture debate involves whether human behavior is determined by the environment, either prenatal or during a person's life, or by a person's genes.wikipedia
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Francis Galton

Sir Francis GaltonGaltonGalton, Francis
The phrase in its modern sense was popularized by the English Victorian polymath Francis Galton, the modern founder of eugenics and behavioral genetics, discussing the influence of heredity and environment on social advancement.
The word eugenics would sufficiently express the idea; it is at least a neater word and a more generalised one than viriculture, which I once ventured to use." He also coined the phrase "nature versus nurture". His book Hereditary Genius (1869) was the first social scientific attempt to study genius and greatness.

Tabula rasa

blank slatetabulae rasaeblank tablet
The view that humans acquire all or almost all their behavioral traits from "nurture" was termed tabula rasa ("blank slate") by John Locke in 1690.
Generally, proponents of the tabula rasa theory also favour the "nurture" side of the nature versus nurture debate when it comes to aspects of one's personality, social and emotional behaviour, knowledge and sapience.

Behavioural genetics

behavioral geneticsbehavior geneticsbehavior geneticist
The phrase in its modern sense was popularized by the English Victorian polymath Francis Galton, the modern founder of eugenics and behavioral genetics, discussing the influence of heredity and environment on social advancement. The nature versus nurture debate involves whether human behavior is determined by the environment, either prenatal or during a person's life, or by a person's genes. The tool of twin studies was developed as a research design intended to exclude all confounders based on inherited behavioral traits. Evidence from behavioral genetic research suggests that family environmental factors may have an effect upon childhood IQ, accounting for up to a quarter of the variance.
While Galton could not rule out the role of environmental influences on eminence, a fact which he acknowledged, the study served to initiate an important debate about the relative roles of genes and environment on behavioural characteristics.

Innatism

innate ideasinnate ideainnate knowledge
Locke was criticizing René Descartes's claim of an innate idea of God universal to humanity.
The issue is controversial, and can be said to be an aspect of a long-running nature versus nurture debate, albeit one localized to the question of understanding human cognition.

Cultural universal

Cultural universalshuman universaluniversal
In a comparable avenue of research, anthropologist Donald Brown in the 1980s surveyed hundreds of anthropological studies from around the world and collected a set of cultural universals.
Some anthropological and sociological theorists that take a cultural relativist perspective may deny the existence of cultural universals: the extent to which these universals are "cultural" in the narrow sense, or in fact biologically inherited behavior is an issue of "nature versus nurture".

The Mind of Primitive Man

Franz Boas's The Mind of Primitive Man (1911) established a program that would dominate American anthropology for the next fifteen years.
He then examines the debate on nature versus nurture and finds that heritability of IQ and ratio of intellectual giftedness of people within a civilization were "at best a possible, but not a necessary, element determining the degree of advancement of a race."

Free will

freedomfreewillfreedom of the will
The question of "innate ideas" or "instincts" were of some importance in the discussion of free will in moral philosophy.
One of the most heated debates in biology is that of "nature versus nurture", concerning the relative importance of genetics and biology as compared to culture and environment in human behavior.

E. O. Wilson

Edward O. WilsonE.O. WilsonEdward Osborne Wilson
Organised opposition to Montagu's kind of purist "blank-slatism" began to pick up in the 1970s, notably led by E. O. Wilson (On Human Nature 1979).
Sociobiology re-ignited the nature and nurture debate.

Human nature

humanitynaturehuman
The term has thus moved away from its original connotation of "cultural influences" to include all effects of the environment, including; indeed, a substantial source of environmental input to human nature may arise from stochastic variations in prenatal development and is thus in no sense of the term "cultural".
Debates about human nature are related to, although not the same as, debates about the comparative importance of genes and environment in development ("nature versus nurture").

Biological determinism

genetic determinismbiologismbiological determinist
In Not in Our Genes: Biology, Ideology and Human Nature (1984), Richard Lewontin, Steven Rose and Leon Kamin criticise "genetic determinism" from a Marxist framework, arguing that "Science is the ultimate legitimator of bourgeois ideology ... If biological determinism is a weapon in the struggle between classes, then the universities are weapons factories, and their teaching and research faculties are the engineers, designers, and production workers."
Galton popularized the phrase nature and nurture, later often used to characterize the heated debate over whether genes or the environment determined human behavior.

John B. Watson

WatsonJohn Broadus WatsonJohn Watson
John B. Watson in the 1920s and 1930s established the school of purist behaviorism that would become dominant over the following decades.
Nevertheless, Watson recognized the importance of nurture in the nature versus nurture discussion which was often neglected by his eugenic contemporaries.

History of psychology

modern psychologyHistorypsychology
In The Nurture Assumption: Why Children Turn Out the Way They Do (1998), Judith Rich Harris was heralded by Steven Pinker as a book that "will come to be seen as a turning point in the history of psychology".

Gene–environment interaction

gene-environment interactiongene-environment interactionsinteraction
The interactions of genes with environment, called gene–environment interactions, are another component of the nature–nurture debate.
Nature versus nurture debates assume that variation in a trait is primarily due to either genetic differences or environmental differences.

Genetics

geneticgeneticistgenetically
Research in the theory concludes that newborns are born into the world with a unique genetic wiring to be social.
Genetic processes work in combination with an organism's environment and experiences to influence development and behavior, often referred to as nature versus nurture.

Instinct

instinctsanimal instinctinstinctive
Locke's was not the predominant view in the 19th century, which on the contrary tended to focus on "instinct".

Socialization

socialisationsocializingsocialized
This observed behavior cannot be contributed to any current form of socialization or social construction.
Socialization provides only a partial explanation for human beliefs and behaviors, maintaining that agents are not blank slates predetermined by their environment; scientific research provides evidence that people are shaped by both social influences and genes.

The Nurture Assumption

The Nurture Assumption: Why Children Turn Out the Way They Do
In The Nurture Assumption: Why Children Turn Out the Way They Do (1998), Judith Rich Harris was heralded by Steven Pinker as a book that "will come to be seen as a turning point in the history of psychology".

Steven Pinker

Pinker, StevenPinkerNancy Etcoff
In The Nurture Assumption: Why Children Turn Out the Way They Do (1998), Judith Rich Harris was heralded by Steven Pinker as a book that "will come to be seen as a turning point in the history of psychology".
In 2009, David Shenk criticized Pinker for siding with the "nature" argument and for "never once acknowledg[ing] gene-environment interaction or epigenetics" in an article on nature versus nurture in The New York Times.

Three Identical Strangers

Tim WardleRobert Shafran, Eddy Galland, and David Kellman
The separations were done as part of an undisclosed scientific "nature versus nurture" twin study, to track the development of genetically identical siblings raised in differing circumstances.

Sociobiology

sociobiologistsociobiologicalsociobiologists
Sociobiologists responded by pointing to the complex relationship between nature and nurture.

Judith Rich Harris

J. R. HarrisJudith Harris
In The Nurture Assumption: Why Children Turn Out the Way They Do (1998), Judith Rich Harris was heralded by Steven Pinker as a book that "will come to be seen as a turning point in the history of psychology".
*Nature versus nurture

Identical Strangers

Identical Strangers: A Memoir of Twins Separated and Reunited
The authors were separated as infants, in part, to participate in a "nature versus nurture" twin study.

Twin study

twin studiestwinstudies of twins
The tool of twin studies was developed as a research design intended to exclude all confounders based on inherited behavioral traits.

Attachment theory

attachmentattachment styleattachment styles
An example of a facultative psychological adaptation may be adult attachment style.
Critics in the 1990s such as J. R. Harris, Steven Pinker and Jerome Kagan were generally concerned with the concept of infant determinism (nature versus nurture), stressing the effects of later experience on personality.

Intelligence quotient

IQIQ testI.Q.
Evidence from behavioral genetic research suggests that family environmental factors may have an effect upon childhood IQ, accounting for up to a quarter of the variance.
The problem of determining the causes underlying this variation relates to the question of the contributions of "nature and nurture" to IQ.