Nautical mile

nautical milesnmnmi.nmimilemilesnautical-mileMsquare nautical milegeographical miles
A nautical mile is a unit of measurement used in both air and marine navigation, and for the definition of territorial waters.wikipedia
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Minute and second of arc

masarcsecondarc second
Historically, it was defined as one minute (1⁄60 of a degree) of latitude along any line of longitude.
The nautical mile was originally defined as a minute of latitude on a hypothetical spherical Earth so the actual Earth circumference is very near 21 600 nautical miles.

Knot (unit)

knotsknotkn
The derived unit of speed is the knot, one nautical mile per hour.
The knot is a unit of speed equal to one nautical mile per hour, exactly 1.852 km/h (approximately 1.15078 mph or 0.514 m/s).

Latitude

latitudesSouthlatitudinal
Historically, it was defined as one minute (1⁄60 of a degree) of latitude along any line of longitude. Navigation at sea was done by eye until around 1500 when navigational instruments were developed and cartographers began using a coordinate system with parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude.
The length of 1 minute of latitude is 1.853 km (1.00 nautical miles), while the length of 1 second of latitude is 30.8 m (see nautical mile).

International Civil Aviation Organization

ICAOICAO recommendations on use of the International System of UnitsInternational Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)

Earth's circumference

circumference of the Earthcircumference of EarthEquatorial circumferences
The Earth's circumference is therefore approximately 40,000 km.
In modern times, Earth's circumference has been used to define fundamental units of measurement of length: the nautical mile in the seventeenth century and the metre in the eighteenth.

Equator

equatorial planeThe Equator
Since the earth is not a perfect sphere but is an oblate spheroid with slightly flattened poles, a minute of latitude is not constant, but about 1861 metres at the poles and 1843 metres at the Equator.
The IUGG standard meridian is, to the nearest millimetre, 40007.862917 km, one arc-minute of which is 1852.216 m, explaining the SI standardization of the nautical mile as 1852 m, more than 3 m less than the geographical mile.

Degree (angle)

°degreesdegree
In the early 1600s English mathematician Edmund Gunter proposed that lines of latitude could be used as the basis for a unit of measurement for distance and proposed the nautical mile as one minute or one-sixtieth (1⁄60) of one degree of latitude.
Maritime charts are marked in degrees and decimal minutes to facilitate measurement; 1 minute of latitude is 1 nautical mile.

Geographical mile

mile (geographical)miles
The equatorial circumference is slightly longer than the polar circumference – the measurement based on this (40,075.017 km × 1⁄60 × 1⁄360 = 1855.3 metres) is known as the geographical mile.
The geographical mile is slightly larger than the nautical mile (which was historically linked to the circumference measured through both poles); one geographic mile is equivalent to approximately 1855.3 m.

Cable length

cablescablecables length
A cable length or length of cable is a nautical unit of measure equal to one tenth of a nautical mile or approximately 100 fathoms.

Metre

metermmetres
The metre was originally defined as 1⁄10,000,000 of the meridian arc from the North pole to the equator passing through Dunkirk.

Mile

miRoman milemiles
The word mile is from the Latin word for a thousand paces: mille passus.

Unit of measurement

unitunits of measurementweights and measures
A nautical mile is a unit of measurement used in both air and marine navigation, and for the definition of territorial waters.

Navigation

nauticalnavigatenavigational
A nautical mile is a unit of measurement used in both air and marine navigation, and for the definition of territorial waters.

Territorial waters

territorial seacoastal waterscontiguous zone
A nautical mile is a unit of measurement used in both air and marine navigation, and for the definition of territorial waters.

Longitude

WestlongitudinalE
Historically, it was defined as one minute (1⁄60 of a degree) of latitude along any line of longitude. Navigation at sea was done by eye until around 1500 when navigational instruments were developed and cartographers began using a coordinate system with parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude.

Latin

Latin languageLat.la
The word mile is from the Latin word for a thousand paces: mille passus.

Coordinate system

coordinatescoordinateaxis
Navigation at sea was done by eye until around 1500 when navigational instruments were developed and cartographers began using a coordinate system with parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude.

Circle of latitude

parallelparallelscircles of latitude
Navigation at sea was done by eye until around 1500 when navigational instruments were developed and cartographers began using a coordinate system with parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude.

Meridian (geography)

meridianmeridiansmeridian line
Navigation at sea was done by eye until around 1500 when navigational instruments were developed and cartographers began using a coordinate system with parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude.

Edmund Gunter

Gunter ruleGunter's scaleGunter's rule
In the early 1600s English mathematician Edmund Gunter proposed that lines of latitude could be used as the basis for a unit of measurement for distance and proposed the nautical mile as one minute or one-sixtieth (1⁄60) of one degree of latitude.