Navigation

nauticalnavigatenavigationalmarine navigationnavigatingNautical sciencenavigablenavigatorIntegrated Bridge and Navigation Systemnavigators
Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.wikipedia
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Navigator

navigatorsnavigation officernavigating officer
It is also the term of art used for the specialized knowledge used by navigators to perform navigation tasks.
A navigator is the person on board a ship or aircraft responsible for its navigation.

Orienteering

orienteerorienteersski orienteering
In this sense, navigation includes orienteering and pedestrian navigation.
Orienteering is a group of sports that require navigational skills using a map and compass to navigate from point to point in diverse and usually unfamiliar terrain whilst moving at speed.

Polynesian navigation

Polynesian navigatorPolynesian navigatorsPolynesian
Polynesian navigation is probably the earliest form of open-ocean navigation, it was based on memory and observation recorded on scientific instruments like the Marshall Islands Stick Charts of Ocean Swells.
As of 2014, these traditional navigation methods are still taught in the Polynesian outlier of Taumako Island in the Solomons.

Marshall Islands stick chart

stick chartsstick charttraditional stick charts
Polynesian navigation is probably the earliest form of open-ocean navigation, it was based on memory and observation recorded on scientific instruments like the Marshall Islands Stick Charts of Ocean Swells.
Stick charts were made and used by the Marshallese to navigate the Pacific Ocean by canoe off the coast of the Marshall Islands.

Compass

magnetic compassDigital compassmariner's compass
Open-seas navigation using the astrolabe and the compass started during the Age of Discovery in the 15th century.
A compass is an instrument used for navigation and orientation that shows direction relative to the geographic cardinal directions (or points).

Artes mechanicae

mechanic artsmechanical artsseven mechanical arts
In the European medieval period, navigation was considered part of the set of seven mechanical arts, none of which were used for long voyages across open ocean.
In his Didascalicon, Hugh of St Victor (12th century) includes navigation, medicine and theatrical arts instead of commerce, agriculture and cooking.

Age of Discovery

Age of ExplorationAge of Discoveriesexplorer
The perfecting of this navigation instrument is attributed to Portuguese navigators during early Portuguese discoveries in the Age of Discovery.
Each crown appointed three astronomers and cartographers, three pilots and three mathematicians.

Marine chronometer

chronometerchronometersChronoscope
Reliable marine chronometers were unavailable until the late 18th century and not affordable until the 19th century.
When first developed in the 18th century, it was a major technical achievement, as accurate knowledge of the time over a long sea voyage is necessary for navigation, lacking electronic or communications aids.

Dead reckoning

Dead-reckonedPedestrian Dead ReckoningAutomotive dead reckoning
If only one line of position is available, this may be evaluated against the dead reckoning position to establish an estimated position. Inertial navigation system (INS) is a dead reckoning type of navigation system that computes its position based on motion sensors.
In navigation, dead reckoning is the process of calculating one's current position by using a previously determined position, or fix, and advancing that position based upon known or estimated speeds over elapsed time and course.

Nautical chart

chartschartnautical charts
If the navigator measures the direction in real life, the angle can then be drawn on a nautical chart and the navigator will be on that line on the chart.
Depending on the scale of the chart, it may show depths of water and heights of land (topographic map), natural features of the seabed, details of the coastline, navigational hazards, locations of natural and human-made aids to navigation, information on tides and currents, local details of the Earth's magnetic field, and human-made structures such as harbours, buildings and bridges.

Piloting

pilotagetransitleading line
Piloting (on water ) or pilotage (in the air, also British English ) is navigating, using fixed points of reference on the sea or on land, usually with reference to a nautical chart or aeronautical chart to obtain a fix of the position of the vessel or aircraft with respect to a desired course or location.

Celestial navigation

astronavigationnavigationcelestial
Celestial navigation uses "sights", or angular measurements taken between a celestial body (e.g. the Sun, the Moon, a planet, or a star) and the visible horizon.

Position fixing

positioningfixdetermines the location
Position fixing or positioning is the branch of navigation concerned with determining the position of a vehicle or person on the surface of the Earth.

Radio direction finder

automatic direction finderdirection finderradio compass
These wavelengths are nevertheless very useful for marine navigation as they can travel very long distances and "over the horizon", which is valuable for ships when the line-of-sight may be only a few tens of kilometres.

Fix (position)

fixposition fixnavigational fix
A fix is the intersection of two or more LOPs.
In position fixing navigation, a position fix (PF) or simply a fix is a position derived from measuring in relation to external reference points.

Inertial navigation system

inertial guidanceINSinertial navigation
Inertial navigation system (INS) is a dead reckoning type of navigation system that computes its position based on motion sensors.
An inertial navigation system (INS) is a navigation device that uses a computer, motion sensors (accelerometers) and rotation sensors (gyroscopes) to continuously calculate by dead reckoning the position, the orientation, and the velocity (direction and speed of movement) of a moving object without the need for external references.

Spherical trigonometry

spherical triangleGirard's theoremspherical excess
Spherical trigonometry is of great importance for calculations in astronomy, geodesy and navigation.

Time signal

time serviceradio time signaltime
A GNSS allow small electronic receivers to determine their location (longitude, latitude, and altitude) to within a few metres using time signals transmitted along a line of sight by radio from satellites.
Accurate knowledge of time of day is essential for navigation, and ships carried the most accurate marine chronometers available, although they did not keep perfect time.

Lunar distance (navigation)

lunar distance methodlunar distancemethod of lunar distances
Lacking that, one can use a sextant to take a lunar distance (also called the lunar observation, or "lunar" for short) that, with a nautical almanac, can be used to calculate the time at zero longitude (see Greenwich Mean Time).
Captain Joshua Slocum, in making the first solo circumnavigation in 1895–1898, somewhat anachronistically used the lunar method along with dead reckoning in his navigation.

Longitude

WestlongitudinalE
A GNSS allow small electronic receivers to determine their location (longitude, latitude, and altitude) to within a few metres using time signals transmitted along a line of sight by radio from satellites.
The measurement of longitude is important both to cartography and for ocean navigation.

Landmark

landmarkslandmark buildingWorld Landmarks
Navigation for cars and other land-based travel typically uses maps, landmarks, and in recent times computer navigation ("satnav", short for satellite navigation), as well as any means available on water.
A landmark is a recognizable natural or artificial feature used for navigation, a feature that stands out from its near environment and is often visible from long distances.

Satellite constellation

constellationsatellite constellationsconstellations
The satellite constellation is managed by the United States Air Force 50th Space Wing.
Examples of satellite constellations include the Global Positioning System (GPS), Galileo and GLONASS constellations for navigation and geodesy, the Iridium and Globalstar satellite telephony services, the Disaster Monitoring Constellation and RapidEye for remote sensing, the Orbcomm messaging service, Russian elliptic orbit Molniya and Tundra constellations, the large-scale Teledesic, Skybridge, and Celestri broadband constellation proposals of the 1990s, and more recent systems such as O3b or the OneWeb proposal.

Nautical almanac

almanacnavigational almanacsNavigational ephemeris tables
Lacking that, one can use a sextant to take a lunar distance (also called the lunar observation, or "lunar" for short) that, with a nautical almanac, can be used to calculate the time at zero longitude (see Greenwich Mean Time).
The "Air Almanac" of the United States and Great Britain tabulates celestial coordinates for 10-minute intervals for use in aerial navigation.

Sextant

sextantsadjusting a sextantArtificial horizon sextant
Lacking that, one can use a sextant to take a lunar distance (also called the lunar observation, or "lunar" for short) that, with a nautical almanac, can be used to calculate the time at zero longitude (see Greenwich Mean Time). The latitude of the North Pole is 90° N, and the latitude of the South Pole is 90° S. Mariners calculated latitude in the Northern Hemisphere by sighting the North Star Polaris with a sextant and using sight reduction tables to correct for height of eye and atmospheric refraction.