Nazca Lines

Nasca linesLines and Geoglyphs of Nazca and Pampas de JumanaNazca lineGethLinear Drawings at NascaLines and geoglyphs of NascaLines and Geoglyphs of Nasca and Pampas de JumanaNazcaNazca figureNazca geoglyphs
The Nazca Lines are a group of very large geoglyphs formed by depressions or shallow incisions made in the soil of the Nazca Desert in southern Peru.wikipedia
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Nazca culture

NazcaNascaIca-Nazca culture
Although some local geoglyphs resemble Paracas motifs, scholars believe the Nazca Lines were created by the Nazca culture.
Having been heavily influenced by the preceding Paracas culture, which was known for extremely complex textiles, the Nazca produced an array of crafts and technologies such as ceramics, textiles, and geoglyphs—specifically the Nazca Lines.

Paul Kosok

Paul Kosok, an American historian from Long Island University, is credited as the first scholar to study the Nazca Lines at length.
Paul August Kosok (21 April 1896 – 1959), an American professor in history and government, is credited as the first serious researcher of the Nazca Lines in Peru.

Nazca

NascaRio Grande de Nazcacultures
The high, arid plateau stretches more than 80 km between the towns of Nazca and Palpa on the Pampas de Jumana, approximately 400 km south of Lima, roughly matching the main PE-1S Panamericana Sur.
This culture was responsible for the Nazca Lines and the ceremonial city of Cahuachi; they also constructed an impressive system of underground aqueducts, named Puquios, that still function today.

Maria Reiche

He was joined by archaeologist Richard P. Schaedel from the United States, and Maria Reiche, a German mathematician and archaeologist from Lima, to help determine the purpose of the Nazca Lines.
She is known for her research into the Nazca Lines, which she first saw in 1941 together with American historian Paul Kosok.

Ancient astronauts

ancient astronautAncient astronaut hypothesisancient astronaut theory
Refuting the hypothesis of Erich von Däniken that the lines had to have been created by "ancient astronauts", prominent skeptic Joe Nickell has reproduced the figures using tools and technology available to the Nazca people.
In Chariots of the Gods?, regarding the Nazca Lines, von Däniken states that "Seen from the air, the clear-cut impression that the 37-mile long plain of Nazca made on me was that of an airfield."

Erich von Däniken

Erich von DanikenVon DanikenVon Däniken
Refuting the hypothesis of Erich von Däniken that the lines had to have been created by "ancient astronauts", prominent skeptic Joe Nickell has reproduced the figures using tools and technology available to the Nazca people.
Von Däniken brought the Nazca Lines to public prominence in Chariots of the Gods? with his proposal that the lines were built on instructions from extraterrestrial beings as airfields for their spaceships.

Joe Nickell

Nickell, Joe
Refuting the hypothesis of Erich von Däniken that the lines had to have been created by "ancient astronauts", prominent skeptic Joe Nickell has reproduced the figures using tools and technology available to the Nazca people.
In 1982, Nickell and five of his relatives created a 440 foot long condor in a field in Kentucky by plotting coordinates of points on a drawing, a technique Nickell believes could have been used to create the Nazca Lines in Peru.

Johan Reinhard

In 1985, archaeologist Johan Reinhard published archaeological, ethnographic, and historical data demonstrating that worship of mountains and other water sources predominated in Nazca religion and economy from ancient to recent times.
His investigations have led him to present theories to explain the mystery of the Nazca Lines(the giant desert drawings), pre-Hispanic ceremonial sites built on Andean mountain summits, and the ancient ceremonial centers of Machu Picchu, Chavin, and Tiahuanaco.

Cahuachi

Nicola Masini and Giuseppe Orefici have conducted research in Pampa de Atarco (at about 10 km south of Pampa de Nasca), which they believe reveals a spatial, functional and religious relationship between these geoglyphs and the temples of Cahuachi.
It overlooked some of the Nazca lines.

Paracas culture

Paracasfardo funerarioIca
Although some local geoglyphs resemble Paracas motifs, scholars believe the Nazca Lines were created by the Nazca culture.
Many predate the associated Nasca lines by a thousand years and some demonstrate a significant difference in the subjects and locations, such as some being on hillsides.

Greenpeace

Greenpeace InternationalGreenpeace CanadaGreenpeace UK
In December 2014, Greenpeace activists irreparably damaged the Nazca Lines while setting up a banner within the lines of one of the famed geoglyphs.
The organization's direct actions have sparked legal actions against Greenpeace activists, such as fines and suspended sentences for destroying a test plot of genetically modified wheat and damaging the Nazca Lines, a UN World Heritage site in Peru.

Geoglyph

geoglyphs
The Nazca Lines are a group of very large geoglyphs formed by depressions or shallow incisions made in the soil of the Nazca Desert in southern Peru.
Perhaps the most famous geoglyphs are the Nazca lines in Peru.

Gerald Hawkins

Gerald S. HawkinsHawkins, Gerald Stanley
Gerald Hawkins and Anthony Aveni, experts in archaeoastronomy, concluded in 1990 that the evidence was insufficient to support such an astronomical explanation.
Hawkins later examined the Nazca lines in Peru, and concluded there was not enough evidence to support an astronomical explanation for them.

History of Peru

PeruPeruvian history1980s
Coastal cultures such as the Moche and Nazca flourished from about 100 BC to about AD 700: the Moche produced impressive metalwork, as well as some of the finest pottery seen in the ancient world, while the Nazca are known for their textiles and the enigmatic Nazca lines.

Blythe Intaglios

Blythe geoglyphsgiant intaglios
The most famous desert intaglios are the Nazca Lines in Peru.

Marilyn Bridges

Marilyn Christine Bridges
Bridges hired a small airplane to fly over the mysterious Nazca Lines, the largest concentration of earth drawings in the world.

Tourism in Peru

tourismtourist attraction in Peru
The other popular ruins are those of Chan Chan, Sipán, Kuelap, Nazca Lines, Ollantaytambo, Caral, Sacsayhuamán, and Sillustani.

Paracas Candelabra

El CandelabroThe Candelabra
This is the same culture which some believe that created the well known geoglyph known as the Paracas Candelabra.

Sechura Desert

Nazca DesertBayóvar DepressionSechura
The Nazca Lines are a group of very large geoglyphs formed by depressions or shallow incisions made in the soil of the Nazca Desert in southern Peru.

Peru

PerúRepublic of PeruPeruvian
The Nazca Lines are a group of very large geoglyphs formed by depressions or shallow incisions made in the soil of the Nazca Desert in southern Peru.

Anno Domini

ADBCChristian era
They were created between 500 BC and 500 AD.

Iron oxide

iron oxidesiron hydroxideferruginous
They were made by removing the top layer of reddish-brown iron oxide-coated pebbles to reveal a yellow-grey subsoil.

Climate of Peru

climate of the plateauPeru
Because of its isolation and the dry, windless, stable climate of the plateau, the lines have mostly been preserved naturally.

Squatting

squattersquatterssquat
As of 2012, the lines are said to have been deteriorating because of an influx of squatters inhabiting the lands.

Geometric shape

plane figuregeometrical figuregeometric shapes
Hundreds are simple lines and geometric shapes; more than 70 are zoomorphic designs of animals such as a hummingbird, spider, fish, llama, jaguar, monkey, lizard, dog and a human.