Nazi concentration camps

Nazi concentration campconcentration campconcentration campsGerman concentration campsconcentrationNazi campsDurchgangslagerKonzentrationslagercampDulag
Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled before and during the Second World War.wikipedia
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Nazi Germany

Third ReichGermanGermany
Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled before and during the Second World War.
The first concentration camps were established in March 1933.

Heinrich Himmler

HimmlerAlfred HimmlerH Himmler
Heinrich Himmler's Schutzstaffel (SS) took full control of the police and the concentration camps throughout Germany in 1934–35. Heinrich Himmler, then Chief of Police of Munich, officially described the camp as "the first concentration camp for political prisoners."
Over the next 16 years, he developed the SS from a mere 290-man battalion into a million-strong paramilitary group, and, following Hitler's orders, set up and controlled the Nazi concentration camps.

Schutzstaffel

SSßNazi SS
Heinrich Himmler's Schutzstaffel (SS) took full control of the police and the concentration camps throughout Germany in 1934–35.
A third component of the SS, the SS-Totenkopfverbände (SS-TV), ran the concentration camps and extermination camps.

SS-Totenkopfverbände

TotenkopfverbändeSSDeath's Head Units
Beginning in 1934 the concentration camps were administered by the Concentration Camps Inspectorate (CCI), which in 1942 was merged into SS-Wirtschafts-Verwaltungshauptamt, and they were guarded by SS-Totenkopfverbände (SS-TV).
SS-Totenkopfverbände (SS-TV; literally "Death's Head Units") was the SS organization responsible for administering the Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps for Nazi Germany, among similar duties.

German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war

Soviet prisoners of warSoviet POWsNazi crimes against Soviet POWs
The role of the camps expanded to hold so-called "undesirables" such as Jews, Romanis/Sintis, Serbs, Soviet POWs, Poles, disabled people, and clergymen.
Most, however, died during the death marches from the front lines or under inhumane conditions in German prisoner-of-war camps and concentration camps.

Priest Barracks of Dachau Concentration Camp

Clergy Barracksclergy barracks at DachauPriest Barracks
The role of the camps expanded to hold so-called "undesirables" such as Jews, Romanis/Sintis, Serbs, Soviet POWs, Poles, disabled people, and clergymen.
Dachau was established in March 1933 as the first Nazi Concentration Camp.

SS Main Economic and Administrative Office

SS-Wirtschafts-VerwaltungshauptamtWVHASS-WVHA
Beginning in 1934 the concentration camps were administered by the Concentration Camps Inspectorate (CCI), which in 1942 was merged into SS-Wirtschafts-Verwaltungshauptamt, and they were guarded by SS-Totenkopfverbände (SS-TV).
It also ran the concentration camps and was instrumental in the implementation of the Final Solution through such subsidiary offices as the Concentration Camps Inspectorate and SS camp guards.

Germany

GermanGERFederal Republic of Germany
The first Nazi camps were erected in Germany in March 1933 immediately after Hitler became Chancellor and his Nazi Party was given control of the police by Reich Interior Minister Wilhelm Frick and Prussian Acting Interior Minister Hermann Göring.
After the Reichstag fire, a decree abrogated basic civil rights and within weeks the first Nazi concentration camp at Dachau opened.

Extermination camp

death campsdeath campextermination camps
Holocaust scholars draw a distinction between concentration camps (described in this article) and extermination camps, which were established by Nazi Germany for the industrial-scale mass murder of Jews in the ghettos by way of gas chambers.
Some Nazi camps, such as Auschwitz and Majdanek, served a dual purpose before the end of the war in 1945: extermination by poison gas, but also through extreme work under starvation conditions.

Dachau concentration camp

DachauKZ Dachauliberated Dachau
The first camp in Germany, Dachau, was founded in March 1933.
Dachau concentration camp (Konzentrationslager (KZ) Dachau, ) was the first of the Nazi concentration camps opened in 1933, intended to hold political prisoners.

Theodor Eicke

On 26 June 1933, Himmler appointed Theodor Eicke commandant of Dachau, who in 1934 was also appointed the first Inspector of Concentration Camps (CCI).
He was one of the key figures in the development of the Nazi concentration camp system in Germany used to suppress dissent during the Holocaust.

Concentration Camps Inspectorate

Inspector of Concentration CampsConcentration Camps Inspectorcamp administration
Beginning in 1934 the concentration camps were administered by the Concentration Camps Inspectorate (CCI), which in 1942 was merged into SS-Wirtschafts-Verwaltungshauptamt, and they were guarded by SS-Totenkopfverbände (SS-TV). On 26 June 1933, Himmler appointed Theodor Eicke commandant of Dachau, who in 1934 was also appointed the first Inspector of Concentration Camps (CCI).
The Concentration Camps Inspectorate (CCI) or in German, IKL (Inspektion der Konzentrationslager) was the central SS administrative and managerial authority for the concentration camps of the Third Reich.

The Holocaust

HolocaustShoahNazi Holocaust
Holocaust scholars draw a distinction between concentration camps (described in this article) and extermination camps, which were established by Nazi Germany for the industrial-scale mass murder of Jews in the ghettos by way of gas chambers.
The murders were carried out in pogroms and mass shootings; by a policy of extermination through work in concentration camps; and in gas chambers and gas vans in German extermination camps, chiefly Auschwitz, Bełżec, Chełmno, Majdanek, Sobibór, and Treblinka in occupied Poland.

Munich

Munich, GermanyMünchenMunich, West Germany
Heinrich Himmler, then Chief of Police of Munich, officially described the camp as "the first concentration camp for political prisoners."
The party created its first concentration camp at Dachau, 16 km north-west of the city.

Oswald Pohl

By 1940, the CCI came under the control of the Verwaltung und Wirtschaftshauptamt Hauptamt (VuWHA; Administration and Business office) which was set up under Oswald Pohl.
As the head of the SS Main Economic and Administrative Office and the head administrator of the Nazi concentration camps, he was a key figure in the Final Solution, the genocide of the European Jews.

Internment

concentration campconcentration campsinterned
Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled before and during the Second World War.
During the 20th century, the arbitrary internment of civilians by the state reached its most extreme forms in the Soviet Gulag system of concentration camps (1918-1991) and the Nazi concentration camps (1933–45).

Nazi concentration camp badge

Nazi concentration camp badgesred triangleinmate number
In most camps, prisoners were forced to wear identifying overalls with colored badges according to their categorization: red triangles for Communists and other political prisoners, green triangles for common criminals, pink triangles for homosexual men, purple triangles for Jehovah's Witnesses, black triangles for asocials and the "work shy", yellow triangle for Jews, and later the brown triangle for Romanis.
They were used in the concentration camps in the Nazi-occupied countries to identify the reason the prisoners had been placed there.

Hermann Göring

GöringHermann GoeringGoering
The first Nazi camps were erected in Germany in March 1933 immediately after Hitler became Chancellor and his Nazi Party was given control of the police by Reich Interior Minister Wilhelm Frick and Prussian Acting Interior Minister Hermann Göring.
On several occasions over the course of the trial, the prosecution showed films of the concentration camps and other atrocities.

Holocaust trains

Holocaust trainHolocaust transportsfreight trains
Prisoners were transported in inhumane conditions by rail freight cars, in which many died before reaching their final destination.
Holocaust trains were railway transports run by the [[Deutsche Reichsbahn#1939-1945: The Reichsbahn in the Second World War and the Holocaust|Deutsche Reichsbahn]] national railway system under the strict supervision of the German Nazis and their allies, for the purpose of forcible deportation of the Jews, as well as other victims of the Holocaust, to the German Nazi concentration, forced labour, and extermination camps.

Black triangle (badge)

black triangleasocialasocials
In most camps, prisoners were forced to wear identifying overalls with colored badges according to their categorization: red triangles for Communists and other political prisoners, green triangles for common criminals, pink triangles for homosexual men, purple triangles for Jehovah's Witnesses, black triangles for asocials and the "work shy", yellow triangle for Jews, and later the brown triangle for Romanis.
The black triangle was a badge used in Nazi concentration camps to mark prisoners regarded "anti-social" and "arbeitsscheu" (work-shy).

Auschwitz concentration camp

AuschwitzAuschwitz-BirkenauBirkenau
In early 1943, as the need for labor increased and the gas chambers at Auschwitz became operational, Heinrich Himmler ordered the end of Action 14f13.
The Auschwitz concentration camp (Konzentrationslager Auschwitz) was a complex of over 40 concentration and extermination camps built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II and the Holocaust.

Action 14f13

14f13Aktion 14f1314f13” murder campaign
In the spring of 1941, the SS—along with doctors and officials of the T-4 Euthanasia Program—introduced the Action 14f13 programme meant for extermination of selected concentration camp prisoners.
Action 14f13, also called "Sonderbehandlung (special treatment) 14f13" and Aktion 14f13, was a campaign by Nazi Germany to terminate Nazi concentration camp prisoners.

Monowitz concentration camp

MonowitzBuna WerkeAuschwitz III
IG Farben established a synthetic rubber plant in 1942 at Monowitz concentration camp (Auschwitz III); other camps were set up next to airplane factories, coal mines and rocket propellant plants.
Monowitz concentration camp (also known as Monowitz-Buna, Buna and Auschwitz III) was a Nazi concentration camps and labor camp (Arbeitslager) run by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland from 1942–1945, during World War II and the Holocaust.

Jan Karski

#Jan Kozielewski (Karski)Jan Karski AwardKarski
The British intelligence service had information about the concentration camps, and in 1942 Jan Karski delivered a thorough eyewitness account to the government.
In actuality, it seems that Karski only managed to get close enough to witness a Durchgangslager (transit camp) for Bełżec in the town of Izbica Lubelska, located midway between Lublin and Bełżec.

Nazi human experimentation

human experimentationmedical experimentshuman experiments
Towards the end of the war, the camps became sites for medical experiments.
Nazi human experimentation was a series of medical experiments on large numbers of prisoners, including children, by Nazi Germany in its concentration camps in the early to mid 1940s, during World War II and the Holocaust.