Nazi eugenics

eugenicseugeniceugenics programmeNazi "racial scienceNazi eugeniccompulsory sterilization lawscorruption and genocidal actionsdisabled peopleeugenic and racial policieseugenicist
Nazi eugenics (Nationalsozialistische Rassenhygiene, "National Socialist racial hygiene") were Nazi Germany's racially based social policies that placed the biological improvement of the Aryan race or Germanic "Übermenschen" master race through eugenics at the center of Nazi ideology.wikipedia
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Racial policy of Nazi Germany

Nazi racial policiesNazi racial policyracial policies
The programs were subsequently shaped to complement Nazi racial policies.
This was combined with a eugenics programme that aimed for racial hygiene by compulsory sterilization and extermination of those who they saw as Untermenschen ("sub-humans"), which culminated in the Holocaust.

Eugenics

eugenicisteugeniceugenicists
Nazi eugenics (Nationalsozialistische Rassenhygiene, "National Socialist racial hygiene") were Nazi Germany's racially based social policies that placed the biological improvement of the Aryan race or Germanic "Übermenschen" master race through eugenics at the center of Nazi ideology.
The eugenics movement became associated with Nazi Germany and the Holocaust when many of the defendants at the Nuremberg trials attempted to justify their human rights abuses by claiming there was little difference between the Nazi eugenics programs and the U.S. eugenics programs.

Master race

HerrenvolkAryansuperior race
Nazi eugenics (Nationalsozialistische Rassenhygiene, "National Socialist racial hygiene") were Nazi Germany's racially based social policies that placed the biological improvement of the Aryan race or Germanic "Übermenschen" master race through eugenics at the center of Nazi ideology.
The Nazis took this concept to a further extreme by establishing a program to systematically genetically enhance the Nordic Aryans themselves through a program of Nazi eugenics, based on the eugenics laws of the US state of California, to create a super race.

Heidelberg University

University of HeidelbergHeidelbergRuprecht Karl University of Heidelberg
In 1936, Laughlin was invited to an award ceremony at Heidelberg University in Germany (scheduled on the anniversary of Hitler's 1934 purge of Jews from the Heidelberg faculty), to receive an honorary doctorate for his work on the "science of racial cleansing".
The university was involved in Nazi eugenics: forced sterilizations were carried out at the women's clinic and the psychiatric clinic, then directed by Carl Schneider, was involved in Action T4 Euthanasia program.

Life unworthy of life

unworthy of lifeLebensunwertes LebenLife Unworthy of Living
Those humans targeted for destruction under Nazi eugenics policies were largely living in private and state-operated institutions, identified as "life unworthy of life" (Lebensunwertes Leben), including prisoners, "degenerates", dissidents, people with congenital cognitive and physical disabilities (including people who were "feeble-minded", epileptic, schizophrenic, manic-depressive, cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, deaf, blind) (erbkranken), homosexual, idle, insane, and the weak, for elimination from the chain of heredity.
It also justified various human experimentation and eugenics programs, as well as Nazi racial policies.

Nazism and race

Nazi racial ideologyAryanNazi racial theories
Nazi eugenics (Nationalsozialistische Rassenhygiene, "National Socialist racial hygiene") were Nazi Germany's racially based social policies that placed the biological improvement of the Aryan race or Germanic "Übermenschen" master race through eugenics at the center of Nazi ideology.

Adolf Hitler

HitlerFührerthe leader
However, its prominence rose sharply under Adolf Hitler's leadership when wealthy Nazi supporters started heavily investing in it. Adolf Hitler read about racial hygiene during his imprisonment in Landsberg Prison.
Hitler's early eugenic policies targeted children with physical and developmental disabilities in a programme dubbed Action Brandt, and he later authorised a euthanasia programme for adults with serious mental and physical disabilities, now referred to as Aktion T4.

Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics

Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of AnthropologyKWI of Anthropology, Human Heredity and EugenicsKWI-A
The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics was founded in 1927.
In its early years, and during the Nazi era, it was strongly associated with theories of Nazi eugenics and racial hygiene advocated by its leading theorists Fritz Lenz, (first director) Eugen Fischer, and by its second director Otmar von Verschuer.

Henry Friedlander

Friedlander, Henry
Henry Friedlander wrote that although the German and American eugenics movements were similar, the German movement was more centralized and did not contain as many diverse ideas as the American movement.

Schutzstaffel

SSßNazi SS
Members of the SS were cautioned to carefully interview prospective marriage partners to make sure they had no family history of hereditary disease or insanity, but to do this carefully so as not to hurt the feelings of the prospective fiancee and, if it became necessary to reject her for eugenic reasons, to do it tactfully and not cause her any offense.
The SS was involved in killing people viewed as threats to race hygiene or Nazi ideology, including the mentally or physically handicapped, homosexuals, and political dissidents.

Charles Goethe

C.M. GoetheC. M. Goethe
Upon returning from Germany in 1934, where more than 5,000 people per month were being forcibly sterilized, the California eugenics leader C. M. Goethe bragged to a colleague:
The Nazi eugenics movement eventually escalated to become The Holocaust, which claimed the lives of well over 10 million 'undesirables', including 6 million Jews.

Racial hygiene

racial purityRassenhygienerace hygiene
Adolf Hitler read about racial hygiene during his imprisonment in Landsberg Prison.
The term racial hygiene was used to describe an approach to eugenics in the early 20th century, which found its most extensive implementation in Nazi Germany (Nazi eugenics).

Persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany

Persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany and the HolocausthomosexualsHistory of gay men in Nazi Germany and the Holocaust
Those humans targeted for destruction under Nazi eugenics policies were largely living in private and state-operated institutions, identified as "life unworthy of life" (Lebensunwertes Leben), including prisoners, "degenerates", dissidents, people with congenital cognitive and physical disabilities (including people who were "feeble-minded", epileptic, schizophrenic, manic-depressive, cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, deaf, blind) (erbkranken), homosexual, idle, insane, and the weak, for elimination from the chain of heredity.

German Society for Racial Hygiene

Unlike the American movement, one publication and one society, the German Society for Racial Hygiene, represented all eugenicists.
With both adoption of the ideas of Nazi eugenics and with concrete consultations on political racial measures, the society took direct influence on statutes like the "Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring", which were an integral part of the Action T4 "euthanasia" programme of the Nazi regime led by Adolf Hitler.

Lebensborn

breed a new "master raceDer Lebensbornestablishing a program
The Lebensborn e. V. (e.V. stands for eingetragener Verein or registered association), meaning "fount of life", was founded on 12 December 1935, to counteract falling birth rates in Germany, and to promote Nazi eugenics.

Eugen Fischer

Eugene Fisher
German professor of medicine, anthropology and eugenics Eugen Fischer was the director of this organization, a man whose work helped provide the scientific basis for the Nazis' eugenics policies. In its early years, and during the Nazi era, the Clinic was strongly associated with theories of eugenics and racial hygiene advocated by its leading theorists Fritz Lenz and Eugen Fischer, and by its director Otmar von Verschuer.

Josef Mengele

Joseph MengeleMengeleDr. Josef Mengele
The Rockefeller Foundation even funded some of the research conducted by Josef Mengele before he went to Auschwitz.

Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring

sterilization lawLaw for the Prevention of Genetically Diseased Offspringits eugenics law
The Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring, enacted on July 14, 1933, allowed the compulsory sterilisation of any citizen who according to the opinion of a "Genetic Health Court" suffered from a list of alleged genetic disorders and required physicians to register every case of hereditary illness known to them, except in women over 45 years of age.

Hadamar Euthanasia Centre

HadamarHadamar ClinicHadamar killing centre
The Hadamar Clinic was a mental hospital in the German town of Hadamar used by the Nazi-controlled German government as the site of Action T4.

Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer

Otmar von VerschuerOttmar von Verschuer
In its early years, and during the Nazi era, the Clinic was strongly associated with theories of eugenics and racial hygiene advocated by its leading theorists Fritz Lenz and Eugen Fischer, and by its director Otmar von Verschuer.

Rhineland Bastard

Rhineland Bastardsblack peopleFranzosenkinder
Under Fischer, the sterilization of so-called Rhineland Bastards was undertaken.

Hereditary Health Court

Genetic Health CourtCourt of HeredityHereditary Health Supreme Court
By the end of the Nazi regime, over 200 Hereditary Health Courts (Erbgesundheitsgerichte) were created, and under their rulings over 400,000 persons were sterilized against their will.

Doctors' trial

Nuremberg Doctors' TrialDoctor's Trial1946 Nuremberg Medical Trial