Negative and positive rights

positive rightsnegative rightsnegative rightpositive rightnegativenegative dutypositivePositive and negative rightsNegative DutiesNegative linguistic rights
Negative and positive rights are rights that oblige either action (positive rights) or inaction (negative rights).wikipedia
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Rights

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Negative and positive rights are rights that oblige either action (positive rights) or inaction (negative rights).
These distinctions have much overlap with that between negative and positive rights, as well as between individual rights and group rights, but these groupings are not entirely coextensive.

Civil and political rights

civil rightscivil rights activistpolitical rights
Rights considered negative rights may include civil and political rights such as freedom of speech, life, private property, freedom from violent crime, freedom of religion, habeas corpus, a fair trial, and freedom from slavery.
The theory of three generations of human rights considers this group of rights to be "first-generation rights", and the theory of negative and positive rights considers them to be generally negative rights.

Three generations of human rights

second-generation rightshuman dimensionthree generations
In the "three generations" account of human rights, negative rights are often associated with the first generation of rights, while positive rights are associated with the second and third generations.
They are fundamentally civil and political in nature: They serve negatively to protect the individual from excesses of the state.

Natural rights and legal rights

natural rightslegal rightsnatural right
These obligations may be of either a legal or moral character.
Natural rights were traditionally viewed as exclusively negative rights, whereas human rights also comprise positive rights.

Economic, social and cultural rights

social rightseconomic rightseconomic, social, and cultural rights
Rights considered positive rights, as initially proposed in 1979 by the Czech jurist Karel Vašák, may include other civil and political rights such as police protection of person and property and the right to counsel, as well as economic, social and cultural rights such as food, housing, public education, employment, national security, military, health care, social security, internet access, and a minimum standard of living.
The theory of negative and positive rights considers economic, social and cultural rights positive rights.

Libertarianism

libertarianlibertarianslibertarian state
Belief in a distinction between positive and negative rights is usually maintained, or emphasized, by libertarians, who believe that positive rights do not exist until they are created by contract.
Right-libertarianism advocates negative rights, natural law and a major reversal of the modern welfare state.

Claim rights and liberty rights

liberty rightsclaimClaim right
The notion of positive and negative rights may also be applied to liberty rights.

Party (law)

partypartiesthird party
To take an example involving two parties in a court of law: Adrian has a negative right to x against Clay if and only if Clay is prohibited from acting upon Adrian in some way regarding x.

If and only if

iffif, and only ifmaterial equivalence
To take an example involving two parties in a court of law: Adrian has a negative right to x against Clay if and only if Clay is prohibited from acting upon Adrian in some way regarding x.

Freedom of speech

free speechfreedom of expressionfree expression
Rights considered negative rights may include civil and political rights such as freedom of speech, life, private property, freedom from violent crime, freedom of religion, habeas corpus, a fair trial, and freedom from slavery.

Property

propertiesproprietarypatrimony
Rights considered negative rights may include civil and political rights such as freedom of speech, life, private property, freedom from violent crime, freedom of religion, habeas corpus, a fair trial, and freedom from slavery.

Violent crime

violent crimesviolentcrime of violence
Rights considered negative rights may include civil and political rights such as freedom of speech, life, private property, freedom from violent crime, freedom of religion, habeas corpus, a fair trial, and freedom from slavery.

Freedom of religion

religious freedomreligious libertyfreedom of worship
Rights considered negative rights may include civil and political rights such as freedom of speech, life, private property, freedom from violent crime, freedom of religion, habeas corpus, a fair trial, and freedom from slavery.

Habeas corpus

writ of habeas corpuswrit of ''habeas corpushabeas petition
Rights considered negative rights may include civil and political rights such as freedom of speech, life, private property, freedom from violent crime, freedom of religion, habeas corpus, a fair trial, and freedom from slavery.

Right to a fair trial

fair trialright to fair trialrights of fair and regular trial
Rights considered negative rights may include civil and political rights such as freedom of speech, life, private property, freedom from violent crime, freedom of religion, habeas corpus, a fair trial, and freedom from slavery.

Slavery

slaveslavesenslaved
Rights considered negative rights may include civil and political rights such as freedom of speech, life, private property, freedom from violent crime, freedom of religion, habeas corpus, a fair trial, and freedom from slavery.

Karel Vasak

Karel Vašák
Rights considered positive rights, as initially proposed in 1979 by the Czech jurist Karel Vašák, may include other civil and political rights such as police protection of person and property and the right to counsel, as well as economic, social and cultural rights such as food, housing, public education, employment, national security, military, health care, social security, internet access, and a minimum standard of living.

Police

policingpolice forcepolice department
Rights considered positive rights, as initially proposed in 1979 by the Czech jurist Karel Vašák, may include other civil and political rights such as police protection of person and property and the right to counsel, as well as economic, social and cultural rights such as food, housing, public education, employment, national security, military, health care, social security, internet access, and a minimum standard of living.

Right to counsel

right to legal representationlegal representationaccess to counsel
Rights considered positive rights, as initially proposed in 1979 by the Czech jurist Karel Vašák, may include other civil and political rights such as police protection of person and property and the right to counsel, as well as economic, social and cultural rights such as food, housing, public education, employment, national security, military, health care, social security, internet access, and a minimum standard of living.

Right to food

foodaccess of foodadequate food
Rights considered positive rights, as initially proposed in 1979 by the Czech jurist Karel Vašák, may include other civil and political rights such as police protection of person and property and the right to counsel, as well as economic, social and cultural rights such as food, housing, public education, employment, national security, military, health care, social security, internet access, and a minimum standard of living.

Right to housing

housinghousing rightsRight to a home
Rights considered positive rights, as initially proposed in 1979 by the Czech jurist Karel Vašák, may include other civil and political rights such as police protection of person and property and the right to counsel, as well as economic, social and cultural rights such as food, housing, public education, employment, national security, military, health care, social security, internet access, and a minimum standard of living.