Negative inversion

In linguistics, negative inversion is one of many types of subject–auxiliary inversion in English.wikipedia
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Inversion (linguistics)

inversioninvertedinverting
A negation (e.g. not, no, never, nothing, etc.) or a word that implies negation (only, hardly, scarcely) or a phrase containing one of these words precedes the finite auxiliary verb necessitating that the subject and finite verb undergo inversion.

V2 word order

verb-secondV2verb-second word order
The V2 word order of other Germanic languages does not allow one to acknowledge negative inversion as a specific phenomenon, since their V2 principle, which is mostly absent from English, allows inversion to occur much more often than in English.

Syntax

syntacticsyntacticalsyntactically
As with subject-auxiliary inversion in general, negative inversion results in a discontinuity and so is a problem for theories of syntax.

Do-support

do''-supportauxiliary ''dodo
The same principles as for question formation apply to other clauses in which subject–auxiliary inversion is required, particularly after negative expressions and expressions involving only (negative inversion):

Subject–auxiliary inversion

subject-auxiliary inversioninversioninversion of subject and auxiliary
In linguistics, negative inversion is one of many types of subject–auxiliary inversion in English.
The most frequent use of subject–auxiliary inversion in English is in the formation of questions, although it also has other uses, including the formation of condition clauses, and in the syntax of sentences beginning with negative expressions (negative inversion).

English language

EnglishEnglish-languageen
In linguistics, negative inversion is one of many types of subject–auxiliary inversion in English.

Finite verb

finitefinite formsfinite form
A negation (e.g. not, no, never, nothing, etc.) or a word that implies negation (only, hardly, scarcely) or a phrase containing one of these words precedes the finite auxiliary verb necessitating that the subject and finite verb undergo inversion.

Auxiliary verb

auxiliaryauxiliary verbsauxiliaries
A negation (e.g. not, no, never, nothing, etc.) or a word that implies negation (only, hardly, scarcely) or a phrase containing one of these words precedes the finite auxiliary verb necessitating that the subject and finite verb undergo inversion.

Germanic languages

GermanicGermanic languageGerman
The V2 word order of other Germanic languages does not allow one to acknowledge negative inversion as a specific phenomenon, since their V2 principle, which is mostly absent from English, allows inversion to occur much more often than in English.

Discontinuity (linguistics)

discontinuitydiscontinuitiesLong-distance dependencies
As with subject-auxiliary inversion in general, negative inversion results in a discontinuity and so is a problem for theories of syntax. The phrase is separated from its governor in the linear order of words so a discontinuity is perceived.

Phrase structure grammar

phrase structureconstituencyconstituency grammar
The problem exists both for the relatively layered structures of phrase structure grammars as well as for the flatter structures of dependency grammars.

Dependency grammar

dependentdependencydependency grammars
The problem exists both for the relatively layered structures of phrase structure grammars as well as for the flatter structures of dependency grammars. The trees showing movement/copying illustrate the analysis of discontinuities that one might find in derivational theories such as Government and Binding Theory and the Minimalist Program, and the trees showing feature passing are similar to what one might find in representational theories like Lexical Functional Grammar, Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar, and some dependency grammars.

Adjunct (grammar)

adjunctadjunctsadnominal
Negative inversion in the b-sentences above is elicited by a negation appearing inside a fronted adjunct.

Argument (linguistics)

argumentargumentsverb argument
Negative inversion also occurs when the negation is (or is contained in) a fronted argument, but the inversion is a bit stilted in such cases:

Predicate (grammar)

predicatepredicatespredication
The fronted phrase containing the negation in the b-sentences is an argument of the matrix predicate, not an adjunct.

Government (linguistics)

governorgovernmentgovern
The phrase is separated from its governor in the linear order of words so a discontinuity is perceived.

Syntactic movement

movementtracemovements
When the phrase containing the negation is fronted, movement (or copying) is necessary to maintain the strictly binary branching structures, as the tree on that right shows.

Catena (linguistics)

catenacatenaecatena'' or 'chains
The nodes in red mark the path (chain of words, catena) along which information about the fronted phrase is passed to the governor of the fronted expression.

Government and binding theory

government and bindingmaximal projectionChomsky's Binding Theory
The trees showing movement/copying illustrate the analysis of discontinuities that one might find in derivational theories such as Government and Binding Theory and the Minimalist Program, and the trees showing feature passing are similar to what one might find in representational theories like Lexical Functional Grammar, Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar, and some dependency grammars.

Minimalist program

Minimalismbare phrase structureThe Minimalist Program
The trees showing movement/copying illustrate the analysis of discontinuities that one might find in derivational theories such as Government and Binding Theory and the Minimalist Program, and the trees showing feature passing are similar to what one might find in representational theories like Lexical Functional Grammar, Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar, and some dependency grammars.

Lexical functional grammar

Lexical-functional grammarLFGLexical functional grammar (LFG)
The trees showing movement/copying illustrate the analysis of discontinuities that one might find in derivational theories such as Government and Binding Theory and the Minimalist Program, and the trees showing feature passing are similar to what one might find in representational theories like Lexical Functional Grammar, Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar, and some dependency grammars.

Head-driven phrase structure grammar

HPSGHead-driven phrase structure grammar (HPSG)
The trees showing movement/copying illustrate the analysis of discontinuities that one might find in derivational theories such as Government and Binding Theory and the Minimalist Program, and the trees showing feature passing are similar to what one might find in representational theories like Lexical Functional Grammar, Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar, and some dependency grammars.

English clause syntax

conditionalfronting
For details see subject–auxiliary inversion and negative inversion.

English auxiliaries and contractions

auxiliary verbcontractedAmn't
The same phenomenon sometimes occurs in the case of negative inversion: