Nehardea

Nehardea or Nehardeah (נהרדעא "river of knowledge") was a city from the area called by ancient Jewish sources Babylonia, situated at or near the junction of the Euphrates with the Nahr Malka (also known as Nâr Sharri, Ar-Malcha, Nahr el-Malik, and King's Canal), one of the earliest centers of Babylonian Judaism.wikipedia
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Talmudic Academies in Babylonia

BabyloniaAcademyTalmudic academy
Nehardea or Nehardeah (נהרדעא "river of knowledge") was a city from the area called by ancient Jewish sources Babylonia, situated at or near the junction of the Euphrates with the Nahr Malka (also known as Nâr Sharri, Ar-Malcha, Nahr el-Malik, and King's Canal), one of the earliest centers of Babylonian Judaism.
Major yeshivot were also located at Nehardea and Mahuza (al-Mada'in).

Fallujah

FallujaFallujah, IraqAl Fallujah
Anbar was adjacent or identical to the Babylonian Jewish center of Nehardea, and lies a short distance from the present-day town of Fallujah, formerly the Babylonian Jewish center of Pumbedita .
The town at this site in Jewish sources was known as Nehardea and was the primary center of Babylonian Jewry until its destruction by the Palmyran ruler Odenathus in 259.

Talmud

Babylonian TalmudTalmudicTalmudist
There are also other allusions in the Talmud (ib.) casting doubt upon the purity of blood of the Nehardean Jews.
During this time, the most important of the Jewish centres in Mesopotamia, a region called "Babylonia" in Jewish sources and later known as Iraq, were Nehardea, Nisibis (modern Nusaybin), Mahoza (al-Mada'in, just to the south of what is now Baghdad), Pumbedita (near present-day al Anbar Governorate), and the Sura Academy, probably located about south of Baghdad.

Samuel of Nehardea

SamuelShmuelMar Samuel
Samuel ben Abba, whose father, Abba ben Abba, was an authority in Nehardea, established the reputation of its academy, while Abba Arika, who likewise taught there for a time, made Sura, situated on the Euphrates about twenty parasangs from Nehardea, the seat of an academy destined to achieve a still greater reputation.
Samuel of Nehardea or Samuel bar Abba, often simply called Samuel (Hebrew: שמואל) and occasionally Mar Samuel, was a Jewish Amora of the first generation; son of Abba bar Abba and head of the Yeshiva at Nehardea, Babylonia.

Rabbi Akiva

AkivaRabbi AkibaR. Akiva
After the destruction of Jerusalem, Nehardea is first mentioned in connection with Rabbi Akiva's sojourn there.
In 95–96, Akiva was in Rome, and some time before 110 he was in Nehardea.

Pumbedita

Pumbeditha
Anbar was adjacent or identical to the Babylonian Jewish center of Nehardea, and lies a short distance from the present-day town of Fallujah, formerly the Babylonian Jewish center of Pumbedita . Soon after Samuel's death, Nehardea was destroyed by Papa ben Neser (either another name for Odenathus, or one of his generals) in 259 CE, and its place as seat of the second academy was taken by Pumbedita.
The academy was established after the destruction of the academy of Nehardea.

History of the Jews in Iraq

Iraqi JewsIraqi JewishIraqi
Nehardea or Nehardeah (נהרדעא "river of knowledge") was a city from the area called by ancient Jewish sources Babylonia, situated at or near the junction of the Euphrates with the Nahr Malka (also known as Nâr Sharri, Ar-Malcha, Nahr el-Malik, and King's Canal), one of the earliest centers of Babylonian Judaism. Anbar was adjacent or identical to the Babylonian Jewish center of Nehardea, and lies a short distance from the present-day town of Fallujah, formerly the Babylonian Jewish center of Pumbedita . Nehardea was the native city of the two Jewish brothers Anilai and Asinai, who in the first third of the 1st century C.E. founded a semi-autonomous state on the Euphrates, under the Parthian government, and caused much trouble to the Babylonian Jews because of their marauder-like escapades.
How free a hand the Parthians permitted the Jews is perhaps best illustrated by the rise of the little Jewish robber-state in Nehardea (see Anilai and Asinai).

Parthian Empire

ParthianParthiansArsacid
The fact that Hyrcanus II, the high priest, lived for a time in that city as a captive of the Parthians may explain the circumstance that as late as the third century certain of its inhabitants traced their descent back to the Hasmoneans.
During the reign of Artabanus II, two Jewish commoners and brothers, Anilai and Asinai from Nehardea (near modern Fallujah, Iraq), led a revolt against the Parthian governor of Babylonia.

Sura (city)

SuraMata MehasiaMatha-Mehasia
Samuel ben Abba, whose father, Abba ben Abba, was an authority in Nehardea, established the reputation of its academy, while Abba Arika, who likewise taught there for a time, made Sura, situated on the Euphrates about twenty parasangs from Nehardea, the seat of an academy destined to achieve a still greater reputation.
It was also a major center of Torah scholarship and home of an important yeshiva - the Sura Yeshiva - which, together with the yeshivas in Pumbedita and Nehardea, gave rise to the Babylonian Talmud.

Abba Arikha

RavAbba ArikaRab
Samuel ben Abba, whose father, Abba ben Abba, was an authority in Nehardea, established the reputation of its academy, while Abba Arika, who likewise taught there for a time, made Sura, situated on the Euphrates about twenty parasangs from Nehardea, the seat of an academy destined to achieve a still greater reputation.
As the scene of his activity, Rav first chose Nehardea, where the exilarch appointed him agoranomos, or market-master, and Rabbi Shela made him lecturer (amora) of his college.

Rav Shela

Rav ShilaRabbi SheilaRabbi Shela
Shela's school was then prominent, and served to pave the way for the activity of the Babylonian academies.
Shela was a Babylonian teacher of the latter part of the tannaitic and the beginning of the amoraic period, and head of the school ("sidra") at Nehardea.

Sheshet

Rav SheshetR. SheshetRab Sheshet
Sheshet also dwelt there temporarily (Ned. 78a).
Sheshet lived first at Nehardea, where he used to study in the synagogue Shaf ve-Yativ, going thence to Mahuza, and later to Shilhe, where he founded an academy.

Amoraim

amoraAmoraicTalmudic sages
According to a statement dating from the 4th century, an amora heard in Nehardea certain tannaitic sentences which had until then been unknown to scholars (Shab. 145b; Niddah 21a).

Abba bar Abba

Abba ben Abba
Samuel ben Abba, whose father, Abba ben Abba, was an authority in Nehardea, established the reputation of its academy, while Abba Arika, who likewise taught there for a time, made Sura, situated on the Euphrates about twenty parasangs from Nehardea, the seat of an academy destined to achieve a still greater reputation.
He is known chiefly through his son Samuel of Nehardea, principal of the Academy of Nehardea, and is nearly always referred to as "Samuel's father."

Odaenathus

OdenathusSeptimius OdaenathusSeptimius Odenathus
Soon after Samuel's death, Nehardea was destroyed by Papa ben Neser (either another name for Odenathus, or one of his generals) in 259 CE, and its place as seat of the second academy was taken by Pumbedita.
A little later he destroyed the Jewish city of Nehardea, 45 km west of the Persian capital Ctesiphon, as he considered the Jews of Mesopotamia to be loyal to Shapur I. By late 262 or early 263, Odaenathus stood outside the walls of the Persian capital.

Anilai and Asinai

Nehardea was the native city of the two Jewish brothers Anilai and Asinai, who in the first third of the 1st century C.E. founded a semi-autonomous state on the Euphrates, under the Parthian government, and caused much trouble to the Babylonian Jews because of their marauder-like escapades.
Being signally defeated by Mithridates in a subsequent engagement, he was forced to withdraw to the forests, where he lived by plundering the Babylonian villages about Nehardea, until his resources were exhausted and the little robber-state disappeared.

Exilarch

Resh GalutaHananiahReish Galuta
As the seat of the exilarch it traced its origin back to King Jehoiachin.
As 'Ukban's successor is mentioned in the list his son Huna (Huna II), whose chief advisers were Rab (died 247) and Samuel (died 254), and in whose time Papa ben Nazor destroyed Nehardea.

Rav Ashi

AshiR' Ashi
Toward the end of the 4th and at the beginning of the 5th century Nehardea again became a center of Babylonian Judaism through Amemar's activity, though this was overshadowed by that of Rav Ashi, the director of the Academy of Sura.
The kindly attitude of King Yazdegerd I, as well as the devoted and respectful recognition of his authority by the academies of Nehardea and Pumbedita, greatly favored the undertaking.

Rava (amora)

RavaRabaAbba ben Joseph bar Ḥama
Raba tells of a walk which he took with Naḥman through the "Shoemaker street," or, according to another version, through the "Scholars' street" (Ḥul. 48b).
Bacher justly infers from this that the aggadic lectures of Rava were delivered in connection with the Sabbath afternoon service - at which, according to a custom observed in Nehardea, and later probably in Mahoza also, parashiyyot were read from the Ketuvim.

Nehardea Academy

Nehardea
Samuel founded the academy at Nehardea, which in time attracted thousands of students.

Sura Academy

Academy of SuraSuraacademy at Sura
Rav (Abba Arikha) arrived at Sura city to find no lively religious public life, and since he was worried about the continuity of the Jewish community in Babylonia, he left his colleague Samuel of Nehardea in Nehardea and began working to establish the yeshiva that would become Sura Academy.

Rav Nachman

Rav NahmanNahmanNahman ben Jacob
Nehardea, however, soon regained its importance, for the eminent Nahman ben Jacob dwelt there.
He served as chief justice of the Jews who were subject to the exilarch (the political head of the Babylonian Jewish community), and was also head of the school of Nehardea.

Anbar (town)

AnbarFiruz ShapurPirisabora
Anbar was adjacent or identical to the Babylonian Jewish center of Nehardea, and lies a short distance from the present-day town of Fallujah, formerly the Babylonian Jewish center of Pumbedita .
Anbar was adjacent or identical to the Babylonian Jewish center of Nehardea, and lies a short distance from the present-day town of Fallujah, formerly the Babylonian Jewish center of Pumbedita .

Pumbedita Academy

PumbeditaAcademyAcademy at Pumbeditha