Neisseria gonorrhoeae

N. gonorrhoeaegonococcusgonococcalgonococciGonococcal conjunctivitisGonococcal infectionsgonococcal infectiongonorrhoeaN. GonorrhoeaNeisseria gonorhoeae
Neisseria gonorrhoeae, also known as gonococcus (singular), or gonococci (plural) is a species of Gram-negative diplococci bacteria isolated by Albert Neisser in 1879.wikipedia
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Gram-negative bacteria

Gram-negativeGram negativeGram-negative bacterium
Neisseria gonorrhoeae, also known as gonococcus (singular), or gonococci (plural) is a species of Gram-negative diplococci bacteria isolated by Albert Neisser in 1879.
The gram-negative bacteria include the model organism Escherichia coli, as well as many pathogenic bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Yersinia pestis.

Neisseria

Neisseria spp.Neisseria'' spp.
Neisseria species are fastidious, Gram-negative cocci that require nutrient supplementation to grow in laboratory cultures.
Of the 11 species that colonize humans, only two are pathogens, N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae.

Pelvic inflammatory disease

pelvic inflammationPelvic inflammatory disease (PID)pelvic inflammatory diseases
Untreated infection in women may cause pelvic inflammatory disease and possible infertility due to the resulting scarring.
Infections by Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis are present in 75 to 90 percent of cases.

Thayer-Martin agar

Thayer-Martinmodified Thayer-Martin culture agar
Culturing it requires carbon dioxide supplementation and enriched agar (chocolate agar) with various antimicrobials (Thayer-Martin).
It is used for culturing and primarily isolating pathogenic Neisseria bacteria, including Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis, as the medium inhibits the growth of most other microorganisms.

Twitching motility

Nesseria is non-spore-forming, capable of moving using twitching motility, and an obligate aerobe (requires oxygen to grow).
It has been observed in many bacterial species, but is most well studied in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Myxococcus xanthus.

New York City agar

Martin Lewis and New York City agar are other types of selective chocolate agar commonly used for Neisseria growth.
The N.Y.C (New York City) medium or GC (Neisseria gonorrhoeae) medium agar is used for isolating Gonococci.

Sexually transmitted infection

venereal diseasesexually transmitted diseasesexually transmitted diseases
It causes the sexually transmitted genitourinary infection gonorrhea as well as other forms of gonococcal disease including disseminated gonococcemia, septic arthritis, and gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum.

Fastidious organism

fastidiousfastidiousness
Neisseria species are fastidious, Gram-negative cocci that require nutrient supplementation to grow in laboratory cultures.
An example of a fastidious bacterium is Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which requires blood or hemoglobin and several amino acids and vitamins to grow.

Antigenic variation

antigenically variableantigenic diversityantigenic subtype
It exhibits antigenic variation through recombination of its pili and surface proteins that interact with the immune system.
Antigenic variation in bacteria is best demonstrated by species of the genus Neisseria (most notably, Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the gonococcus); species of the genus Streptococcus and the Mycoplasma.

Septic arthritis

infectious arthritisjoint infectionjoint infections
It causes the sexually transmitted genitourinary infection gonorrhea as well as other forms of gonococcal disease including disseminated gonococcemia, septic arthritis, and gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum. Dermatitis-arthritis syndrome results in joint pain (arthritis), tendon inflammation (tenosynovitis), and painless non-pruritic (non-itchy) dermatitis.
This can include NAAT testing for N. gonorrhoeae if suspected in a sexually active person.

Albert Ludwig Sigesmund Neisser

Albert NeisserNeisser, Albert Ludwig Sigismund
Neisseria gonorrhoeae, also known as gonococcus (singular), or gonococci (plural) is a species of Gram-negative diplococci bacteria isolated by Albert Neisser in 1879.
During the following two years he studied and obtained experimental evidence about the pathogen for gonorrhea, Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Agar plate

blood agarblood agar plateagar plates
Thayer-Martin agar is a chocolate agar plate (heated blood agar) containing nutrients and antimicrobials (vancomycin, colistin, nystatin, and trimethoprim).
Thayer-Martin agar is a chocolate agar designed to isolate Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Natural competence

competencecompetenttake up foreign DNA
In addition to the ability to rearrange the genes it already has, it is also naturally competent to acquire new DNA (via plasmids), via its type IV pilus, specifically proteins Pil Q and Pil T. These processes allow ''N.
Since then, natural competence has been studied in a number of different bacteria, particularly Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Griffith's "pneumococcus"), Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Haemophilus influenzae and members of the Acinetobacter genus.

Colistin

Colistin sulfatecolistimethatecolistimethate sodium
Thayer-Martin agar is a chocolate agar plate (heated blood agar) containing nutrients and antimicrobials (vancomycin, colistin, nystatin, and trimethoprim).

Lipopolysaccharide

endotoxinLPSlipopolysaccharides
gonorrhoeae'' bears hair-like pili, surface proteins with various functions, and sugars called lipooligosaccharides.
Most meningococci from groups B and C, as well as gonococci, have been shown to have this trisaccharide as part of their LOS structure.

Vancomycin

Red man syndromeRed man syndrome (Drug eruption)Vancocin
Thayer-Martin agar is a chocolate agar plate (heated blood agar) containing nutrients and antimicrobials (vancomycin, colistin, nystatin, and trimethoprim).
Most Gram-negative bacteria are intrinsically resistant to vancomycin because their outer membranes are impermeable to large glycopeptide molecules (with the exception of some non-gonococcal Neisseria species).

Neonatal conjunctivitis

ophthalmia neonatorumeye infections in the newborngonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum
In perinatal infection, the primary manifestation is infection of the eye (neonatal conjunctivitis or ophthalmia neonatorum) when the newborn is exposed to ''N.
Infectious neonatal conjunctivitis is typically contracted during vaginal delivery from exposure to bacteria from the birth canal, most commonly Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis.

Epididymitis

epididymo-orchitisinflammation of the epididymispain and swelling of one or both testicles
Infection may spread from the urethra in the penis to nearby structures, including the testicles (epididymitis/orchitis), or to the prostate (prostatitis).
In sexually active men, Chlamydia trachomatis is responsible for two-thirds of acute cases, followed by Neisseria gonorrhoeae and E. coli (or other bacteria that cause urinary tract infection).

Antibiotic resistance in gonorrhea

Antibiotic resistance in gonorrhea has been noted beginning in the 1940s.
The Gonorrhea bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae has developed antibiotic resistance to many antibiotics.

Gonorrhea

gonorrhoeathe clapgonorhea
It causes the sexually transmitted genitourinary infection gonorrhea as well as other forms of gonococcal disease including disseminated gonococcemia, septic arthritis, and gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum.
Gonorrhea, colloquially known as the clap, is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Complement system

complementcomplement cascadecomplement activation
Although its main function is as an endotoxin, LOS may disguise itself with host sialic acid and block initiation of the complement cascade.
meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae'' are the only conditions known to be associated with deficiencies in the MAC components of complement.

Pharyngitis

throat infectionsore throatthroat infections
gonorrhoeae'' may cause infection of the throat (pharyngitis) or infection of the anus/rectum (proctitis).
The most common is group A streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes), but others include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Bordetella pertussis, Bacillus anthracis, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Fusobacterium necrophorum.

Cephalosporin

cephalosporinsthird-generation cephalosporincefalosporin
This includes an injected single dose of ceftriaxone (a third-generation cephalosporin) along with azithromycin administered orally.
Currently, some Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Escherichia coli strains are resistant to cephalosporins.

Tenosynovitis

chronic tenosynovitisinflammation of tendonstendons
Dermatitis-arthritis syndrome results in joint pain (arthritis), tendon inflammation (tenosynovitis), and painless non-pruritic (non-itchy) dermatitis.
Additionally, sexually active patients are at risk for hematogenous spread due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae (see infectious arthritis).

Pus

purulentsuppurationpyogenic
In symptomatic men, the primary symptom of genitourinary infection is urethritis – burning with urination (dysuria), increased urge to urinate, and a pus-like (purulent) discharge from the penis.