Neoclassical architecture

NeoclassicalClassical Revivalneo-classicalNeoclassical styleNeoclassicClassicalNeoclassicismClassical Revival styleClassical Revival architectureneo-classical style
Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century.wikipedia
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Claude Nicolas Ledoux

Claude-Nicolas LedouxLedouxClaude Nicholas Ledoux
Many early 19th-century neoclassical architects were influenced by the drawings and projects of Étienne-Louis Boullée and Claude Nicolas Ledoux.
Claude-Nicolas Ledoux (21 March 1736 – 18 November 1806) was one of the earliest exponents of French Neoclassical architecture.

New Classical architecture

New ClassicalContemporary ClassicalNeo-Classical
Neoclassical architecture is still designed today, but may be labelled New Classical Architecture for contemporary buildings.
It can be considered as the modern continuation of the Neoclassical movement and other revivalist movement that may or may not fall to the umbrella term; Classical architecture.

Robert Adam

RobertAdamAdam Brothers
It first gained influence in England and France; in England, Sir William Hamilton's excavations at Pompeii and other sites, the influence of the Grand Tour and the work of William Chambers and Robert Adam, was pivotal in this regard. In the decorative arts, neoclassicism is exemplified in French furniture of the Empire style; the English furniture of Chippendale, George Hepplewhite and Robert Adam, Wedgwood's bas reliefs and "black basaltes" vases, and the Biedermeier furniture of Austria. The revolution begun by Stuart was soon to be eclipsed by the work of the Adam Brothers, James Wyatt, Sir William Chambers, George Dance, James Gandon and provincially based architects such as John Carr and Thomas Harrison of Chester.
Robert Adam (3 July 1728 – 3 March 1792) was a Scottish neoclassical architect, interior designer and furniture designer.

John Soane

Sir John SoaneSoane MedalSoane
International neoclassical architecture was exemplified in Karl Friedrich Schinkel's buildings, especially the Old Museum in Berlin, Sir John Soane's Bank of England in London and the newly built White House and Capitol in Washington, D.C. of the nascent American Republic.
Sir John Soane (né Soan; 10 September 1753 – 20 January 1837) was an English architect who specialised in the Neo-Classical style.

Benjamin Henry Latrobe

Benjamin LatrobeBenjamin H. LatrobeLatrobe
The [[Basilica of the National Shrine of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary (Baltimore)|Baltimore Cathedral]] (now the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary), which was designed by Benjamin Henry Latrobe in 1806, is considered one of the finest examples of neo-classical architecture in the world.
Benjamin Henry Boneval Latrobe (May 1, 1764 – September 3, 1820) was a British-American neoclassical architect who emigrated to the United States.

White House

The White HouseExecutive MansionPresident's House
International neoclassical architecture was exemplified in Karl Friedrich Schinkel's buildings, especially the Old Museum in Berlin, Sir John Soane's Bank of England in London and the newly built White House and Capitol in Washington, D.C. of the nascent American Republic.
The residence was designed by Irish-born architect James Hoban in the neoclassical style.

United States Capitol

U.S. CapitolCapitolCapitol Building
International neoclassical architecture was exemplified in Karl Friedrich Schinkel's buildings, especially the Old Museum in Berlin, Sir John Soane's Bank of England in London and the newly built White House and Capitol in Washington, D.C. of the nascent American Republic.
Like the principal buildings of the executive and judicial branches, the Capitol is built in a distinctive neoclassical style and has a white exterior.

Rococo

Late BaroqueRococo styleRoccoco
The style is manifested both in its details as a reaction against the Rococo style of naturalistic ornament, and in its architectural formulae as an outgrowth of some classicising features of the Late Baroque architectural tradition. A return to more classical architectural forms as a reaction to the Rococo style can be detected in some European architecture of the earlier 18th century, most vividly represented in the Palladian architecture of Georgian Britain and Ireland.
Before entering the Rococo, British furniture for a time followed the neoclassical Palladian model under designer William Kent, who designed for Lord Burlington and other important patrons of the arts.

Charles Cameron (architect)

Charles CameronCameronCameron (architect)
The Scottish architect Charles Cameron created palatial Italianate interiors for the German-born Catherine II the Great in St. Petersburg.
Cameron, practitioner of early neoclassical architecture, was the chief architect of Tsarskoye Selo and Pavlovsk palaces and the adjacent new town of Sophia from his arrival in Russia in 1779 to Catherine's death in 1796.

Thomas Chippendale

ChippendaleChinese ChippendaleChippendale furniture
In the decorative arts, neoclassicism is exemplified in French furniture of the Empire style; the English furniture of Chippendale, George Hepplewhite and Robert Adam, Wedgwood's bas reliefs and "black basaltes" vases, and the Biedermeier furniture of Austria.
He became a cabinet-maker in London, designing furniture in the mid-Georgian, English Rococo, and Neoclassical styles.

Goût grec

The style in France was initially a Parisian style, the Goût grec ("Greek style"), not a court style; when Louis XVI acceded to the throne in 1774, Marie Antoinette, his fashion-loving Queen, brought the "Louis XVI" style to court.
The French term goût grec ("Greek taste") is often applied to the earliest expression of the neoclassical style in France and refers specifically to the decorative arts and architecture of the mid-1750s to the late 1760s.

Pediment

pedimentspedimentedtriangular pediment
The antiquities of Herculaneum showed that even the most classicising interiors of the Baroque, or the most "Roman" rooms of William Kent were based on basilica and temple exterior architecture turned outside in, hence their often bombastic appearance to modern eyes: pedimented window frames turned into gilded mirrors, fireplaces topped with temple fronts.
A pediment is an architectural element found particularly in classical, neoclassical and baroque architecture, and its derivatives, consisting of a gable, usually of a triangular shape, placed above the horizontal structure of the entablature, typically supported by columns.

Italians

ItalianItalian peopleItalian descent
In its purest form, it is a style principally derived from the architecture of classical antiquity, the Vitruvian principles, and the work of the Italian architect Andrea Palladio.
As Italy is home to the greatest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites (51) to date and it is home to half the world's great art treasures, Italians are known for their significant architectural achievements, such as the construction of arches, domes and similar structures during ancient Rome, the founding of the Renaissance architectural movement in the late-14th to 16th centuries, and being the homeland of Palladianism, a style of construction which inspired movements such as that of Neoclassical architecture, and influenced the designs which noblemen built their country houses all over the world, notably in the UK, Australia and the US during the late 17th to early 20th centuries.

Étienne-Louis Boullée

BoulléeEtienne-Louis BoulléeBoulée
Many early 19th-century neoclassical architects were influenced by the drawings and projects of Étienne-Louis Boullée and Claude Nicolas Ledoux.
Together with Claude Nicolas Ledoux, he was one of the most influential figures of French neoclassical architecture.

Palladian architecture

PalladianPalladian styleNeo-Palladian
A return to more classical architectural forms as a reaction to the Rococo style can be detected in some European architecture of the earlier 18th century, most vividly represented in the Palladian architecture of Georgian Britain and Ireland.
Tommaso Temanza, their biographer, proved to be the movement's most able and learned proponent; in his hands the visual inheritance of Palladio's example became increasingly codified in correct rules and drifted towards neoclassicism.

Milan

Milan, ItalyMilanoMilano, Italy
In the second half of the century, Neoclassicism flourished also in Turin, Milan (Giuseppe Piermarini) and Trieste (Matteo Pertsch).
The late 1700s Palazzo Belgioioso by Giuseppe Piermarini and Royal Villa of Milan by Leopoldo Pollack, later the official residence of Austrian viceroys, are often regarded among the best examples of Neoclassical architecture in Lombardy.

British Museum

The British MuseumBritish Museum PressBrit. Mus.
Wilkins and Robert Smirke went on to build some of the most important buildings of the era, including the Theatre Royal, Covent Garden (1808–09), the General Post Office (1824–1829) and the British Museum (1823–1848), Wilkins University College London (1826–1830) and the National Gallery (1832–1838).
The neoclassical architect, Sir Robert Smirke, was asked to draw up plans for an eastern extension to the museum "... for the reception of the Royal Library, and a Picture Gallery over it ..."

Turin

TorinoTurin, ItalyTorino, Italy
An early centre of neoclassicism was Italy, especially Naples, where by the 1730s, court architects such as Luigi Vanvitelli and Ferdinando Fuga were recovering classical, Palladian and Mannierist forms in their Baroque architecture (a similar aesthetic move can be seen in the later works of the Piedmontese court architect Filippo Juvarra in Turin).
The circular copper-domed neoclassical monument, surmounted by a Latin cross and surrounded by a large park, was designed by Angelo Dimezzi and completed in 1888.

Naples

Naples, ItalyNapoliNeapolitan
An early centre of neoclassicism was Italy, especially Naples, where by the 1730s, court architects such as Luigi Vanvitelli and Ferdinando Fuga were recovering classical, Palladian and Mannierist forms in their Baroque architecture (a similar aesthetic move can be seen in the later works of the Piedmontese court architect Filippo Juvarra in Turin).
Naples is noted for its numerous stately villas, fountains and stairways, such as the Neoclassical Villa Floridiana, the Fountain of Neptune and the Pedamentina stairways.

Regency architecture

RegencyRegency styleRegency-style
The style corresponds to the more bourgeois Biedermeier style in the German-speaking lands, Federal style in the United States, the Regency style in Britain, and the Napoleonstil in Sweden.
The style is strictly the late phase of Georgian architecture, and follows closely on from the neo-classical style of the preceding years, which indeed continued to be produced throughout the period.

Thomas Harrison (architect)

Thomas HarrisonHarrison
The revolution begun by Stuart was soon to be eclipsed by the work of the Adam Brothers, James Wyatt, Sir William Chambers, George Dance, James Gandon and provincially based architects such as John Carr and Thomas Harrison of Chester.
Some of Harrison's designs, including his buildings at Lancaster Castle, were Gothic in style, but most were Neoclassical, particularly those at Chester Castle.

Vitruvius

Marcus Vitruvius PollioVitruvianVitruv
In its purest form, it is a style principally derived from the architecture of classical antiquity, the Vitruvian principles, and the work of the Italian architect Andrea Palladio.
Printed and illustrated editions of De Architectura inspired Renaissance, Baroque and Neoclassical architecture.

William Henry Playfair

William PlayfairPlayfairW. H. Playfair
In Scotland and the north of England, where the Gothic Revival was less strong, architects continued to develop the neoclassical style of William Henry Playfair.
William Henry Playfair FRSE (15 July 1790 – 19 March 1857) was one of the greatest Scottish architects of the 19th century, designer of the Eastern, or Third, New Town and many of Edinburgh's neoclassical landmarks.

Greek Revival architecture

Greek RevivalGreek Revival styleGreek Revival architectural style
From about 1800 a fresh influx of Greek architectural examples, seen through the medium of etchings and engravings, gave a new impetus to neoclassicism, the Greek Revival.
A product of Hellenism, it may be looked upon as the last phase in the development of Neoclassical architecture, which had for long mainly drawn from Roman architecture.

Biedermeier

Biedermeier periodBiedemeierBiedermaier
In the decorative arts, neoclassicism is exemplified in French furniture of the Empire style; the English furniture of Chippendale, George Hepplewhite and Robert Adam, Wedgwood's bas reliefs and "black basaltes" vases, and the Biedermeier furniture of Austria. The style corresponds to the more bourgeois Biedermeier style in the German-speaking lands, Federal style in the United States, the Regency style in Britain, and the Napoleonstil in Sweden.
Through the unity of simplicity and functionality the Biedermeier Neoclassical architecture created tendencies of crucial influence for the Jugendstil—Art Nouveau, Bauhaus, and the 20th-century architecture.