Neoconservatism

neoconservativeneoconservativesneo-conservativeneoconneo-conservativesneoconsneo-conservatismneoconservativismneo-conAmerican Neoconservatism
Neoconservatism (commonly shortened to neocon when labelling its adherents) is a political movement born in the United States during the 1960s among liberal hawks who became disenchanted with the increasingly pacifist foreign policy of the Democratic Party, and the growing New Left and counterculture, in particular the Vietnam protests.wikipedia
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2003 invasion of Iraq

invasion of IraqIraq War2003 Iraq War
Many of its adherents became politically famous during the Republican presidential administrations of the 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s as neoconservatives peaked in influence during the administration of George W. Bush, when they played a major role in promoting and planning the 2003 invasion of Iraq.
Others place a much greater emphasis on the impact of the September 11 attacks, on the role this played in changing U.S. strategic calculations, and the rise of the freedom agenda.

Norman Podhoretz

The movement had its intellectual roots in the Jewish monthly review magazine Commentary, edited by Norman Podhoretz and published by the American Jewish Committee.
Norman Podhoretz (born January 16, 1930) is an American neoconservative pundit and writer for Commentary magazine.

Paul Wolfowitz

WolfowitzPaul D. WolfowitzWoof
Prominent neoconservatives in the George W. Bush administration included Paul Wolfowitz, Elliott Abrams, Richard Perle, and Paul Bremer. Strauss influenced Weekly Standard editor William Kristol, William Bennett, Robert Bork, Newt Gingrich, Antonin Scalia and Clarence Thomas, as well as military strategist Paul Wolfowitz.
He is considered to be a leading neoconservative.

Richard Perle

Pearly WhitePerleHon. Richard Perle
Prominent neoconservatives in the George W. Bush administration included Paul Wolfowitz, Elliott Abrams, Richard Perle, and Paul Bremer.
He has been involved with several think-tanks throughout his career including the Washington Institute for Near East Policy (WINEP) Board of Advisors, the Center for Security Policy (CSP), the American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research (as a resident fellow), the neoconservative Project for the New American Century (PNAC), and the Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs (JINSA).

Irving Kristol

Kristol, Irving
The term "neoconservative" was popularized in the United States during 1973 by the socialist leader Michael Harrington, who used the term to define Daniel Bell, Daniel Patrick Moynihan, and Irving Kristol, whose ideologies differed from Harrington's. Irving Kristol edited the journal The Public Interest (1965–2005), featuring economists and political scientists, which emphasized ways that government planning in the liberal state had produced unintended harmful consequences.
Irving Kristol (January 22, 1920 – September 18, 2009) was an American journalist who was dubbed the "godfather of neoconservatism".

Commentary (magazine)

CommentaryCommentary MagazineCommentary'' magazine
The movement had its intellectual roots in the Jewish monthly review magazine Commentary, edited by Norman Podhoretz and published by the American Jewish Committee.
Podhoretz, originally a liberal Democrat turned neoconservative, moved the magazine to the right and toward the Republican Party in the 1970s and 1980s.

Michael Harrington

Harrington, MichaelE. Michael HarringtonMichael Harrington Book Award
The term "neoconservative" was popularized in the United States during 1973 by the socialist leader Michael Harrington, who used the term to define Daniel Bell, Daniel Patrick Moynihan, and Irving Kristol, whose ideologies differed from Harrington's.
In 1973, he coined the term neoconservatism.

Social Democrats, USA

many of his associatesSocial DemocratSocial Democrats of the United States of America
Seymour Lipset asserts that the term "neoconservative" was used originally by socialists to criticize the politics of Social Democrats, USA (SDUSA).
SDUSA members opposed McGovern's politics and a few of them helped to start the Coalition for a Democratic Majority (CDM) and such members have been called "Scoop" Jackson Democrats or neoconservatives (or both).

Seymour Martin Lipset

Lipset, Seymour M.Lipset, Seymour MartinSeymour M. Lipset
Seymour Lipset asserts that the term "neoconservative" was used originally by socialists to criticize the politics of Social Democrats, USA (SDUSA).
A socialist in his early life, Lipset later moved to the right, and became one of the first American neoconservatives.

Encounter (magazine)

EncounterEncounter'' (magazine)Encounter magazine
His ideas have been influential since the 1950s, when he co-founded and edited the magazine Encounter.
Shifts on both sides of the Atlantic triggered by the rise of the "neoconservative" tendency in opposition to the prevailing left-liberalism in elite opinion are visible.

American Enterprise Institute

AEIAmerican Enterprise Institute for Public Policy ResearchAmerican Enterprise Institute (AEI)
Neoconservatives organized in the American Enterprise Institute and The Heritage Foundation to counter the liberal establishment.
AEI is closely associated with conservatism and neoconservatism, although it is officially non-partisan.

The Public Interest

Irving Kristol edited the journal The Public Interest (1965–2005), featuring economists and political scientists, which emphasized ways that government planning in the liberal state had produced unintended harmful consequences.
It was a leading neoconservative journal on political economy and culture, aimed at a readership of journalists, scholars and policy makers.

Bill Kristol

William KristolWilliam
Strauss influenced Weekly Standard editor William Kristol, William Bennett, Robert Bork, Newt Gingrich, Antonin Scalia and Clarence Thomas, as well as military strategist Paul Wolfowitz.
William Kristol (born December 23, 1952) is an American neoconservative political analyst.

Bayard Rustin

Rustin, BayardRustin
(Most of the left-wing of the party, led by Michael Harrington, immediately abandoned SDUSA.) SDUSA leaders associated with neoconservatism include Carl Gershman, Penn Kemble, Joshua Muravchik and Bayard Rustin.
President Ronald Reagan issued a statement on Rustin's death in 1987, praising his work for civil rights and his shift toward neoconservative politics over the years.

The Heritage Foundation

Heritage FoundationTrade Freedom IndexHeritage
Neoconservatives organized in the American Enterprise Institute and The Heritage Foundation to counter the liberal establishment.
Heritage advocated for pro-business policies, anti-communism and neoconservatism in its early years, but distinguished itself from the conservative American Enterprise Institute (AEI) by also advocating for Christian conservatism.

Justin Vaïsse

In a book-length study for Harvard University Press, historian Justin Vaisse writes that Lipset and Goldberg are in error, as "neoconservative" was used by socialist Michael Harrington to describe three men – noted above – who were not in SDUSA, and neoconservatism is a definable political movement.
He was also an adjunct professor at the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) in Washington D.C. His areas of expertise include Islam in France; French foreign policy; European affairs; American neoconservatism; American foreign policy; transatlantic relations; and international relations.

Henry M. Jackson

Henry "Scoop" JacksonHenry M. "Scoop" JacksonHenry Jackson
After the anti-war faction took control of the party during 1972 and nominated George McGovern, the Democrats among them endorsed Washington Senator Henry "Scoop" Jackson instead for his unsuccessful 1972 and 1976 campaigns for president.
The political philosophies and positions of Scoop Jackson have been cited as an influence on a number of key figures associated with neoconservatism, including Paul Wolfowitz and Richard Perle, both of whom previously served as aides to the Senator.

Social conservatism

socially conservativesocial conservativesocial conservatives
The influential 1970 bestseller The Real Majority by Ben Wattenberg expressed that the "real majority" of the electorate endorsed economic interventionism, but also social conservatism; and warned Democrats it could be disastrous to adopt liberal positions on certain social and crime issues.
The main reason is that the neoliberal or neoconservative style of politics as promoted by leaders such as former Liberal Party of Canada Prime Minister Paul Martin and Former Conservative Party of Canada Prime Minister Stephen Harper have focused on economic conservatism, with little or no emphasis on moral or social conservatism.

Robert Kagan

Robert William Kagan
In April 2006, Robert Kagan wrote in The Washington Post that Russia and China may be the greatest "challenge liberalism faces today": "The main protagonists on the side of autocracy will not be the petty dictatorships of the Middle East theoretically targeted by the Bush doctrine. They will be the two great autocratic powers, China and Russia, which pose an old challenge not envisioned within the new 'war on terror' paradigm. ... Their reactions to the 'color revolutions' in Ukraine, Georgia and Kyrgyzstan were hostile and suspicious, and understandably so. ... Might not the successful liberalization of Ukraine, urged and supported by the Western democracies, be but the prelude to the incorporation of that nation into NATO and the European Union – in short, the expansion of Western liberal hegemony?"
Robert Kagan (born September 26, 1958) is a neoconservative American historian and foreign-policy commentator.

Anti-Stalinist left

anti-StalinistAnti-Stalinismanti-communist left
Historically speaking, the term "neoconservative" refers to those who made the ideological journey from the anti-Stalinist left to the camp of American conservatism during the 1960s and 1970s.
The New York Intellectuals are often described as being part of the origins of the neoconservative movement.

John R. Bolton

John BoltonBolton, John R.Bolton
Some of the neo-conservatives such as John R. Bolton joined the Trump administration, while many of the neo-conservatives continue to oppose the Trump presidency.
A Republican, his political views have been described as American nationalist, conservative, and "neoconservative".

The Real Majority

The influential 1970 bestseller The Real Majority by Ben Wattenberg expressed that the "real majority" of the electorate endorsed economic interventionism, but also social conservatism; and warned Democrats it could be disastrous to adopt liberal positions on certain social and crime issues.
Wattenberg later became a prominent figure in the neo-conservative movement, although at the time of the book's publication he was a member of Social Democrats, USA.

Francis Fukuyama

FukuyamaFukuyama, FrancisYoshihiro Francis Fukuyama
Francis Fukuyama identified neoconservatism with Leninism during 2006.
Fukuyama is also associated with the rise of the neoconservative movement, from which he has since distanced himself.

William Bennett

Bill BennettWilliam J. BennettBennett, William J.
Strauss influenced Weekly Standard editor William Kristol, William Bennett, Robert Bork, Newt Gingrich, Antonin Scalia and Clarence Thomas, as well as military strategist Paul Wolfowitz.
This event was later marked as the watershed in the divergence between paleoconservatives, who backed Bradford, and neoconservatives, led by Irving Kristol, who supported Bennett.

Modern liberalism in the United States

liberalliberalsLiberalism
During the late 1970s and early 1980s, the neoconservatives considered that liberalism had failed and "no longer knew what it was talking about", according to E. J. Dionne.
Some liberals moved to the right and became "neoconservatives" in the 1970s.