Neologism

neologismscoinedneologisticcoiningcoinageneologistnamednew wordcoinagesnew words
A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.wikipedia
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Grok

Examples include "grok" from Stranger in a Strange Land by Robert A. Heinlein; "McJob" from Generation X: Tales for an Accelerated Culture by Douglas Coupland; "cyberspace" from Neuromancer by William Gibson and "quark" from James Joyce's Finnegans Wake.
Grok is a neologism coined by American writer Robert A. Heinlein for his 1961 science fiction novel Stranger in a Strange Land.

Protologism

coinedcoined wordcoining
In the process of language formation, neologisms are more mature than protologisms.
A protologism becomes a neologism as soon as it appears in published press, on a website or book independent from the coiner.

Finnegans Wake

Anna Livia PlurabelleHCEHumphrey Chimpden Earwicker
Examples include "grok" from Stranger in a Strange Land by Robert A. Heinlein; "McJob" from Generation X: Tales for an Accelerated Culture by Douglas Coupland; "cyberspace" from Neuromancer by William Gibson and "quark" from James Joyce's Finnegans Wake.
The entire book is written in a largely idiosyncratic language, which blends standard English lexical items and neologistic multilingual puns and portmanteau words to unique effect.

George Orwell

OrwellOrwellianEric Blair
This includes such words as "Orwellian" (from George Orwell, referring to his novel Nineteen Eighty-Four) and "Kafkaesque" (from Franz Kafka).
Orwell's work remains influential in popular culture and in political culture, and the adjective "Orwellian" – describing totalitarian and authoritarian social practices – is part of the English language, like many of his neologisms, such as "Big Brother", "Thought Police", and "Hate week", "Room 101", the "memory hole", and "Newspeak", "doublethink" and "proles", "unperson" and "thoughtcrime".

Memetics

memeticmemesMemeticist
Neologisms can become popular through memetics, by way of mass media, the Internet, and word of mouth, including academic discourse in many fields renowned for their use of distinctive jargon, and often become accepted parts of the language.

Portmanteau

portmanteau wordportmanteausportmanteaux
Portmanteaux are combined words that are sometimes used commonly. Examples of recent pop-culture neologisms include the American Alt-right, the Canadian portmanteau "Snowmageddon", and the Russian parody "Monstration".
Many neologisms are examples of blends, but many blends have become part of the lexicon.

Compound (linguistics)

compoundcompound wordcompounds
Neologisms are often created by combining existing words (see compound noun and adjective) or by giving words new and unique suffixes or prefixes.

Alt-right

alt-right movementalt-leftAlternative Right
Examples of recent pop-culture neologisms include the American Alt-right, the Canadian portmanteau "Snowmageddon", and the Russian parody "Monstration".
Various experts pointed out that the neologism "alt-left" was neither created by nor been adopted by any members of the progressive left.

Etymology

etymologicaletymologicallyetymologies
Anyone such as a lexicographer or an etymologist might study neologisms, how their uses span the scope of human expression, and how, due science and technology, they spread more rapidly than ever before in the present times.

Mondegreen

misheardmondegreensphonetically approximating
American writer Sylvia Wright coined the term in 1954, writing that as a girl she had misheard the lyric "...and laid him on the green" in a Scottish ballad as, "...and Lady Mondegreen".

Aphasia

aphasicdysphasiaaphasics
The use of neologisms may also be due to aphasia acquired after brain damage resulting from a stroke or head injury.
As such, people with jargon aphasia often use neologisms, and may perseverate if they try to replace the words they cannot find with sounds.

Phono-semantic matching

a combination of the twodifferent to the original wordGhil'ad Zuckermann
Phono-semantic matching (PSM) is the incorporation of a word into one language from another, often creating a neologism, where the word's non-native quality is hidden by replacing it with phonetically and semantically similar words or roots from the adopting language.

Brain damage

brain injurybrain injuriesbrain lesion
The use of neologisms may also be due to aphasia acquired after brain damage resulting from a stroke or head injury.
Wernicke's aphasia is associated with anomia, unknowingly making up words (neologisms), and problems with comprehension.

Retronym

retroactively namedrenamedretroactive addition
A retronym is a newer name for an existing thing that differentiates the original form or version from a more recent one.

Brand

brand namemarquebrands
The genericizing of brand names, such as "coke" for Coca-Cola, "kleenex" for Kleenex facial tissue, and "xerox" for Xerox photocopying, all spread through their popular use becoming enhanced by mass media.

Aureation

aureateaureate vocabulary
The medieval and renaissance periods were a fertile time for such borrowings and in Germanic languages, such as English and Scots, Greek and Latinate coinages were particularly highlighted (see classical compounds especially), though this has sometimes been decried as pretentious, these coinages being criticized as inkhorn terms.

Abbreviation

abbreviatedsyllabic abbreviationabbrev
Neologisms also can be created through abbreviation or acronym, by intentionally rhyming with existing words or simply through playing with sounds.

Ancient Greek

GreekClassical GreekGr.
A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.

Suffix

suffixesendingsuffixation
Neologisms are often created by combining existing words (see compound noun and adjective) or by giving words new and unique suffixes or prefixes.

Prefix

prefixesprefixationquasi-
Neologisms are often created by combining existing words (see compound noun and adjective) or by giving words new and unique suffixes or prefixes.

Acronym

initialismacronymsinitials
Neologisms also can be created through abbreviation or acronym, by intentionally rhyming with existing words or simply through playing with sounds.

Rhyme

rhymingrhymesend rhyme
Neologisms also can be created through abbreviation or acronym, by intentionally rhyming with existing words or simply through playing with sounds.

Mass media

mediapressmedia company
Neologisms can become popular through memetics, by way of mass media, the Internet, and word of mouth, including academic discourse in many fields renowned for their use of distinctive jargon, and often become accepted parts of the language.

Internet

onlinethe Internetweb
Neologisms can become popular through memetics, by way of mass media, the Internet, and word of mouth, including academic discourse in many fields renowned for their use of distinctive jargon, and often become accepted parts of the language.