Neonatal jaundice

jaundicejaundice, neonatalJaundice in babiesneonatal jaundice treatmentnewborn jaundiceBreast milk jaundiceNeonatal hyperbilirubinaemianeonatal hyperbilirubinemiaNeonatal transient jaundicephototherapy
Neonatal jaundice is a yellowish discoloration of the white part of the eyes and skin in a newborn baby due to high bilirubin levels.wikipedia
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Jaundice

Obstructive jaundiceicteruscholestatic jaundice
Neonatal jaundice is a yellowish discoloration of the white part of the eyes and skin in a newborn baby due to high bilirubin levels.
Jaundice in babies occurs in over half in the first week following birth and does not pose a serious threat in most.

Light therapy

phototherapyheliotherapylight box
Treatments may include more frequent feeding, phototherapy, or exchange transfusions. If the neonatal jaundice does not clear up with simple phototherapy, other causes such as biliary atresia, Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, bile duct paucity, Alagille syndrome, alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency, and other pediatric liver diseases should be considered.
One common use of the term is associated with the treatment of skin disorders, chiefly psoriasis, acne vulgaris, eczema and neonatal jaundice.

Hypothyroidism

hypothyroidhypo-underactive thyroid
In other cases it results from red blood cell breakdown, liver disease, infection, hypothyroidism, or metabolic disorders (pathologic).
Some may have drowsiness, decreased muscle tone, a hoarse-sounding cry, feeding difficulties, constipation, an enlarged tongue, umbilical hernia, dry skin, a decreased body temperature and jaundice.

Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency

alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiencyalpha-1-antitrypsin deficiencyAlpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency
If the neonatal jaundice does not clear up with simple phototherapy, other causes such as biliary atresia, Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, bile duct paucity, Alagille syndrome, alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency, and other pediatric liver diseases should be considered.
Complications may include COPD, cirrhosis, neonatal jaundice, or panniculitis.

Kernicterus

brain damage in infantshigh bilirubin levels
Complications may include seizures, cerebral palsy, or kernicterus.
Mildly elevated serum bilirubin levels are common in newborns, and neonatal jaundice is not unusual, but bilirubin levels must be carefully monitored in case they start to climb, in which case more aggressive therapy is needed, usually via light therapy but sometimes even via exchange transfusion.

Gilbert's syndrome

Gilbert syndromeGilbert diseaseGilbert's disease
GS has been reported to possibly contribute to an accelerated onset of neonatal jaundice, especially in the presence of increased red blood cell destruction due to diseases such as G6PD deficiency.

Hemolytic disease of the newborn

erythroblastosis fetalishemolytic disease of the fetus and newbornRh incompatibility
Like other forms of severe neonatal jaundice, there is the possibility of the neonate developing acute or chronic kernicterus, however the risk of kernicterus in HDN is higher because of the rapid and massive destruction of blood cells.

Bilirubin

hyperbilirubinemiaconjugated bilirubinunconjugated bilirubin
Neonatal jaundice is a yellowish discoloration of the white part of the eyes and skin in a newborn baby due to high bilirubin levels. Most infants develop visible jaundice due to elevation of unconjugated bilirubin concentration during their first week.

Crigler–Najjar syndrome

Crigler–Najjar syndrome, type ICrigler–Najjar syndrome, type IICrigler-Najjar
Neonatal jaundice may develop in the presence of sepsis, hypoxia, hypoglycemia, hypothyroidism, hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, galactosemia, fructosemia, etc.

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

G6PD deficiencyfavismG6PD
Family history of jaundice and anemia, family history of neonatal or early infant death due to liver disease, maternal illness suggestive of viral infection (fever, rash or lymphadenopathy), maternal drugs (e.g. sulphonamides, anti-malarials causing red blood cell destruction in G6PD deficiency) are suggestive of pathological jaundice in neonates.
Complications can include anemia and newborn jaundice.

Rh disease

rhesus diseaserh isoimmunizationrhesus incompatibility
However, once the infant is delivered, the immature system is not able to handle this amount of bilirubin alone and jaundice or kernicterus (bilirubin deposition in the brain) can develop which may lead to brain damage or death.

Hemolytic disease of the newborn (ABO)

ABO hemolytic disease of the newbornABOABO isoimmunization
The antibodies in ABO HDN cause anemia due to destruction of fetal red blood cells and jaundice due to the rise in blood levels of bilirubin a by-product of hemoglobin break down.

Infant

neonatalinfancynewborn
Most infants develop visible jaundice due to elevation of unconjugated bilirubin concentration during their first week.

Biliblanket

The light can be applied with overhead lamps, which means that the baby's eyes need to be covered, or with a device called a biliblanket, which sits under the baby's clothing close to its skin.
A biliblanket is a portable phototherapy device for the treatment of neonatal jaundice (hyperbilirubinemia).

Sclera

sclerotizedwhites of the eyessclerae
Neonatal jaundice is a yellowish discoloration of the white part of the eyes and skin in a newborn baby due to high bilirubin levels.

Skin

cutaneousskin cellanimal skin
Neonatal jaundice is a yellowish discoloration of the white part of the eyes and skin in a newborn baby due to high bilirubin levels.

Epileptic seizure

seizureseizuresepileptic seizures
Complications may include seizures, cerebral palsy, or kernicterus.

Cerebral palsy

palsycerebral palsy sufferersCP
Complications may include seizures, cerebral palsy, or kernicterus.

Hemolysis

hemolytichaemolysishaemolytic
In other cases it results from red blood cell breakdown, liver disease, infection, hypothyroidism, or metabolic disorders (pathologic). Family history of jaundice and anemia, family history of neonatal or early infant death due to liver disease, maternal illness suggestive of viral infection (fever, rash or lymphadenopathy), maternal drugs (e.g. sulphonamides, anti-malarials causing red blood cell destruction in G6PD deficiency) are suggestive of pathological jaundice in neonates.

Liver disease

liver problemsliver dysfunctionliver
In other cases it results from red blood cell breakdown, liver disease, infection, hypothyroidism, or metabolic disorders (pathologic).

Metabolic disorder

metabolic disordersmetabolic diseasemetabolic diseases
In other cases it results from red blood cell breakdown, liver disease, infection, hypothyroidism, or metabolic disorders (pathologic).

Preterm birth

Pretermpremature birthpremature
In those who are born early more aggressive treatment tends to be required.

Fetal hemoglobin

hemoglobin FHbFfetal blood
In newborns, jaundice tends to develop because of two factors—the breakdown of fetal hemoglobin as it is replaced with adult hemoglobin and the relatively immature metabolic pathways of the liver, which are unable to conjugate and so excrete bilirubin as quickly as an adult.

Hemoglobin

haemoglobinoxyhemoglobindeoxyhemoglobin
In newborns, jaundice tends to develop because of two factors—the breakdown of fetal hemoglobin as it is replaced with adult hemoglobin and the relatively immature metabolic pathways of the liver, which are unable to conjugate and so excrete bilirubin as quickly as an adult.

Biliary atresia

Atresia of bile ductsBiliary atresia, extrahepaticCongenital Biliary Atresia
If the neonatal jaundice does not clear up with simple phototherapy, other causes such as biliary atresia, Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, bile duct paucity, Alagille syndrome, alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency, and other pediatric liver diseases should be considered.