Neonatal withdrawal

neonatal abstinence syndromeneonatal withdrawal syndromewithdrawal symptoms in the newbornDrug withdrawal syndrome in newbornNeonatal withdrawal symptoms from maternal use of drugs of addiction
Neonatal withdrawal or neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a withdrawal syndrome of infants after birth caused by in utero exposure to drugs of dependence.wikipedia
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Substance dependence

addictiondependencedrug dependence
Neonatal withdrawal or neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a withdrawal syndrome of infants after birth caused by in utero exposure to drugs of dependence.
Infants also suffer from substance withdrawal, known as Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS), which can have severe and life-threatening effects.

Benzodiazepine

benzodiazepinesbenzodiazapinesbenzo
The drugs involved may be, for example, opioids, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), ethanol and benzodiazepines.
While they are not major teratogens, uncertainty remains as to whether they cause cleft palate in a small number of babies and whether neurobehavioural effects occur as a result of prenatal exposure; they are known to cause withdrawal symptoms in the newborn.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

SSRIselective serotonin reuptake inhibitorsSSRIs
The drugs involved may be, for example, opioids, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), ethanol and benzodiazepines.
Several studies have documented neonatal abstinence syndrome, a syndrome of neurological, gastrointestinal, autonomic, endocrine and/or respiratory symptoms among a large minority of infants with intrauterine exposure.

Finnegan scoring system

The Finnegan scoring system is more widely used.
The Finnegan scoring system is used to quantify and diagnose neonatal withdrawal or abstinence (NAS) syndrome.

Prenatal cocaine exposure

crack babycrack babiesborn with an addiction
Neonatal abstinence syndrome does not happen in prenatal cocaine exposure.
While newborns who were exposed prenatally to drugs such as barbiturates or heroin frequently have symptoms of drug withdrawal (neonatal abstinence syndrome), this does not happen with babies exposed to crack in utero; at least, such symptoms are difficult to separate in the context of other factors such as prematurity or prenatal exposure to other drugs.

Phenobarbital

phenobarbitoneLuminalHaplos
Phenobarbital is sometimes used as an alternative but is less effective in suppressing seizures; however, phenobarbital is superior to diazepam for neonatal opiate withdrawal symptoms.
Phenobarbital is used as a secondary agent to treat newborns with neonatal abstinence syndrome, a condition of withdrawal symptoms from exposure to opioid drugs in utero.

Clonidine

Catapresclonidine hydrochlorideDuraclon
Clonidine is an emerging add-on therapy.
Clonidine may also reduce severity of neonatal abstinence syndrome in infants born to mothers that are using certain drugs, particularly opioids.

Buprenorphine

SubutexSuboxoneProbuphine
Buprenorphine may also be effective.
Buprenorphine has been used in the treatment of the neonatal abstinence syndrome, a condition in which newborns exposed to opioids during pregnancy demonstrate signs of withdrawal.

Laudanum

tincture of opiumlaudanineopium tincture
A study demonstrated a shorter wean duration in infants treated with methadone compared to those treated with diluted tincture of opium.
The current prescribing information for laudanum in the US states that opium tincture's sole indication is as an anti-diarrheal, although the drug is occasionally prescribed off-label for treating pain and neonatal withdrawal syndrome.

Infant

neonatalinfancynewborn
Neonatal withdrawal or neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a withdrawal syndrome of infants after birth caused by in utero exposure to drugs of dependence.

Opioid

opioidsopioid-induced constipationopioid analgesic
The drugs involved may be, for example, opioids, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), ethanol and benzodiazepines.

Ethanol

alcoholbioethanolethyl alcohol
The drugs involved may be, for example, opioids, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), ethanol and benzodiazepines.

Swaddling

swaddling clothesswaddledswaddle
Non-medication based approaches to treat neonatal symptoms include swaddling the infant in a blanket, minimizing environmental stimuli, and monitoring sleeping and feeding patterns.

Breastfeeding

breast feedingbreastfeedbreast-feeding
Breastfeeding promotes infant attachment and bonding and is associated with a decreased need for medication.

Epileptic seizure

seizureseizuresepileptic seizures
Phenobarbital is sometimes used as an alternative but is less effective in suppressing seizures; however, phenobarbital is superior to diazepam for neonatal opiate withdrawal symptoms.

Diazepam

ValiumDizacCANA
Phenobarbital is sometimes used as an alternative but is less effective in suppressing seizures; however, phenobarbital is superior to diazepam for neonatal opiate withdrawal symptoms.

Sedative

sedativessedative-hypnoticsedated
In the case of sedative-hypnotic neonatal withdrawal, phenobarbital is the treatment of choice.

University of Michigan

MichiganUniversity of Michigan, Ann ArborUniversity of Michigan at Ann Arbor
A 2012 study from the University of Michigan and the University of Pittsburgh published in the Journal of the American Medical Association analyzed information on 7.4 million discharges from 4,121 hospitals in 44 states, to measure trends and costs associated with NAS over the past decade.

University of Pittsburgh

PittsburghPittWestern University of Pennsylvania
A 2012 study from the University of Michigan and the University of Pittsburgh published in the Journal of the American Medical Association analyzed information on 7.4 million discharges from 4,121 hospitals in 44 states, to measure trends and costs associated with NAS over the past decade.

JAMA (journal)

Journal of the American Medical AssociationJAMAThe Journal of the American Medical Association
A 2012 study from the University of Michigan and the University of Pittsburgh published in the Journal of the American Medical Association analyzed information on 7.4 million discharges from 4,121 hospitals in 44 states, to measure trends and costs associated with NAS over the past decade.

ICD-10 Chapter XVI: Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period

Perinatal conditions
Examples of conditions captured using codes from Chapter XVI include; birth injuries, prematurity, neonatal jaundice, and neonatal withdrawal.

Children's Specialized Hospital

Around 2010, the hospital developed a program to treat babies with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), with about 12 to 15 babies treated a year.

Midazolam

VersedDormicumMidazolam hydrochloride
Other neonatal withdrawal symptoms include hyperexcitability, tremor, and gastrointestinal upset (diarrhea or vomiting).

Methamphetamine

crystal methmethcrystal methamphetamine
Infants born to methamphetamine-abusing mothers may experience a neonatal withdrawal syndrome, with symptoms involving of abnormal sleep patterns, poor feeding, tremors, and hypertonia.

Nitrazepam

Mogadonserum
Nitrazepam is not recommended during pregnancy as it is associated with causing a neonatal withdrawal syndrome and is not generally recommended in alcohol- or drug-dependent individuals or people with comorbid psychiatric disorders.