Neonatal withdrawal

neonatal abstinence syndromeneonatal withdrawal syndromewithdrawal symptoms in the newborn
Neonatal withdrawal or neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a withdrawal syndrome of infants after birth caused by in utero exposure to drugs of dependence.wikipedia
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Substance dependence

addictiondependencedrug dependence
Neonatal withdrawal or neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a withdrawal syndrome of infants after birth caused by in utero exposure to drugs of dependence.
Infants also suffer from substance withdrawal, known as Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS), which can have severe and life-threatening effects.

Benzodiazepine

benzodiazepinesbenzodiazapines1,4-benzodiazepine
Benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and certain antidepressants (SSRIs) can cause dependence in the infant while in the womb.
While they are not major teratogens, uncertainty remains as to whether they cause cleft palate in a small number of babies and whether neurobehavioural effects occur as a result of prenatal exposure; they are known to cause withdrawal symptoms in the newborn.

Buprenorphine

SuboxonesubutexBuprenorphrine
Neonatal abstinence syndrome may occur when a pregnant woman takes opioids such as heroin, codeine, oxycodone, methadone or buprenorphine.
Buprenorphine has been used in the treatment of the neonatal abstinence syndrome, a condition in which newborns exposed to opioids during pregnancy demonstrate signs of withdrawal.

Finnegan scoring system

The Finnegan scoring system is more widely used.
The Finnegan scoring system is used to quantify and diagnose neonatal withdrawal or abstinence (NAS) syndrome.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitorsSSRISSRIs
Benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and certain antidepressants (SSRIs) can cause dependence in the infant while in the womb.
Several studies have documented neonatal abstinence syndrome, a syndrome of neurological, gastrointestinal, autonomic, endocrine and/or respiratory symptoms among a large minority of infants with intrauterine exposure.

Phenobarbital

phenobarbitoneLuminalphenobarbitol
Phenobarbital is sometimes used as an alternative but is less effective in suppressing seizures; however, phenobarbital is superior to diazepam for neonatal opiate withdrawal symptoms.
Phenobarbital is used as a secondary agent to treat newborns with neonatal abstinence syndrome, a condition of withdrawal symptoms from exposure to opioid drugs in utero.

Prenatal cocaine exposure

crack babycrack babiesborn with an addiction
Neonatal abstinence syndrome does not happen in prenatal cocaine exposure.
While newborns who were exposed prenatally to drugs such as barbiturates or heroin frequently have symptoms of drug withdrawal (neonatal abstinence syndrome), this does not happen with babies exposed to crack in utero; at least, such symptoms are difficult to separate in the context of other factors such as prematurity or prenatal exposure to other drugs.

Laudanum

tincture of opiumlaudanineopium tincture
A study demonstrated a shorter wean duration in infants treated with methadone compared to those treated with diluted tincture of opium.
The current prescribing information for laudanum in the US states that opium tincture's sole indication is as an anti-diarrheal, although the drug is occasionally prescribed off-label for treating pain and neonatal withdrawal syndrome.

Infant

neonatalinfancynewborn
Neonatal withdrawal or neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a withdrawal syndrome of infants after birth caused by in utero exposure to drugs of dependence.

Opioid

opioidsopioid analgesicendogenous opioids
Neonatal abstinence syndrome may occur when a pregnant woman takes opioids such as heroin, codeine, oxycodone, methadone or buprenorphine.

Heroin

diamorphinediacetylmorphinesmack
Neonatal abstinence syndrome may occur when a pregnant woman takes opioids such as heroin, codeine, oxycodone, methadone or buprenorphine.

Codeine

codeine phosphatecodeine hydrochlorideCod'ine
Neonatal abstinence syndrome may occur when a pregnant woman takes opioids such as heroin, codeine, oxycodone, methadone or buprenorphine.

Oxycodone

OxyContinEukodolpain killers
Neonatal abstinence syndrome may occur when a pregnant woman takes opioids such as heroin, codeine, oxycodone, methadone or buprenorphine.

Methadone

Methadone treatmentAmidonesFizzies
Neonatal abstinence syndrome may occur when a pregnant woman takes opioids such as heroin, codeine, oxycodone, methadone or buprenorphine.

Barbiturate

barbituratesbarbiturate withdrawalgoofballs
Benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and certain antidepressants (SSRIs) can cause dependence in the infant while in the womb.

Route of administration

parenteralroutes of administrationparenterally
The severity of the withdrawal symptoms in the neonate can be affected by the route of administration used by the mother.

Shrillness

shrill
It can be described as being high-pitched, non-stop and shrill.

Hypertonia

muscle rigidityhypertonicmuscle hypertonia
A newborn withdrawing from drugs or alcohol may be hypertonic and have convulsions.

Convulsion

convulsionsconvulsiveconvulsing
A newborn withdrawing from drugs or alcohol may be hypertonic and have convulsions.

Moro reflex

morostartle reflex
Seizures, increased Moro reflex, tremors, irritability, and disturbed sleep patterns can be observed.

Tremor

tremblingshakingmuscle tremor
Seizures, increased Moro reflex, tremors, irritability, and disturbed sleep patterns can be observed.

Hyperthermia

heat stressheat strokehyperthermic
Respiratory symptoms of withdrawal include a temperature greater than normal, tachypnea, apnea, nasal congestion, nasal flaring, blotchy skin, and yawning.

Tachypnea

rapid breathingtachypnoeaincreased rate of breathing
Respiratory symptoms of withdrawal include a temperature greater than normal, tachypnea, apnea, nasal congestion, nasal flaring, blotchy skin, and yawning.

Apnea

apnoeaapneicapnoeic
Respiratory symptoms of withdrawal include a temperature greater than normal, tachypnea, apnea, nasal congestion, nasal flaring, blotchy skin, and yawning.

Nasal congestion

congestionnasal obstructionblocked nose
Respiratory symptoms of withdrawal include a temperature greater than normal, tachypnea, apnea, nasal congestion, nasal flaring, blotchy skin, and yawning.