Neonicotinoid

neonicotinoidsNicotinoidban on neonicotinoids
Neonicotinoids (sometimes shortened to neonics ) are a class of neuro-active insecticides chemically similar to nicotine.wikipedia
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Nicotine

nicotine addictionnicotine sulfateaddicted to nicotine
Neonicotinoids (sometimes shortened to neonics ) are a class of neuro-active insecticides chemically similar to nicotine. In the 1980s Shell and in the 1990s Bayer started work on their development.
It functions as an antiherbivore chemical; consequently, nicotine was widely used as an insecticide in the past, and neonicotinoids, such as imidacloprid, are widely used.

Imidacloprid

Advantageconfidor
The neonicotinoid family includes acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, nithiazine, thiacloprid and thiamethoxam.
Imidacloprid is a systemic insecticide that acts as an insect neurotoxin and belongs to a class of chemicals called the neonicotinoids which act on the central nervous system of insects.

Acetamiprid

The neonicotinoid family includes acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, nithiazine, thiacloprid and thiamethoxam. To best take advantage of new research as it becomes available, the EPA moved ahead the docket openings for the remaining neonicotinoids on the registration review schedule (acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam) to FY 2012.
It is an odorless neonicotinoid insecticide produced under the trade names Assail, and Chipco by Aventis CropSciences.

Nitenpyram

Capstar
The neonicotinoid family includes acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, nithiazine, thiacloprid and thiamethoxam.
The compound is a neurotoxin belonging to the class of neonicotinoids, which works by blocking neural signaling of the central nervous system in specifically insects.

Clothianidin

The neonicotinoid family includes acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, nithiazine, thiacloprid and thiamethoxam. To best take advantage of new research as it becomes available, the EPA moved ahead the docket openings for the remaining neonicotinoids on the registration review schedule (acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam) to FY 2012.
Similar to thiamethoxam and imidacloprid, it is a neonicotinoid.

Thiamethoxam

The neonicotinoid family includes acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, nithiazine, thiacloprid and thiamethoxam. To best take advantage of new research as it becomes available, the EPA moved ahead the docket openings for the remaining neonicotinoids on the registration review schedule (acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam) to FY 2012.
Thiamethoxam is a systemic insecticide in the class of neonicotinoids.

Colony collapse disorder

disappearance of beesbee colony collapse disorderbees have become extinct
Neonicotinoid use has been linked in a range of studies to adverse ecological effects, including honey-bee colony collapse disorder (CCD) and loss of birds due to a reduction in insect populations.
A large amount of speculation has surrounded the contributions of the neonicotinoid family of pesticides to CCD, but many collapsing apiaries show no trace of neonicotinoids.

Thiacloprid

The neonicotinoid family includes acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, nithiazine, thiacloprid and thiamethoxam. To best take advantage of new research as it becomes available, the EPA moved ahead the docket openings for the remaining neonicotinoids on the registration review schedule (acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam) to FY 2012.
Thiacloprid is an insecticide of the neonicotinoid class.

Dinotefuran

To best take advantage of new research as it becomes available, the EPA moved ahead the docket openings for the remaining neonicotinoids on the registration review schedule (acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam) to FY 2012.
Dinotefuran is an insecticide of the neonicotinoid class developed by Mitsui Chemicals for control of insect pests such as aphids, whiteflies, thrips, leafhoppers, leafminers, sawflies, mole cricket, white grubs, lacebugs, billbugs, beetles, mealybugs, and cockroaches on leafy vegetables, in residential and commercial buildings, and for professional turf management.

Nithiazine

The neonicotinoid family includes acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, nithiazine, thiacloprid and thiamethoxam.
Nithiazine is a nitromethylene neonicotinoid insecticide.

Insecticide

insecticidesinsecticidalsystemic insecticide
Neonicotinoids (sometimes shortened to neonics ) are a class of neuro-active insecticides chemically similar to nicotine. In the 1980s Shell and in the 1990s Bayer started work on their development.
Neonicotinoids are synthetic analogues of the natural insecticide nicotine (with much lower acute mammalian toxicity and greater field persistence).

Honey bee

honeybeehoneybeeshoney bees
Neonicotinoid use has been linked in a range of studies to adverse ecological effects, including honey-bee colony collapse disorder (CCD) and loss of birds due to a reduction in insect populations.
It seems to be caused by a combination of factors rather than a single pathogen or poison, possibly including neonicotinoid pesticides or Israeli acute paralysis virus.

Syngenta

Syngenta AGAgricultural Research StationNovartis
The study was supported by COPA-COGECA, the European Seed Association and the European Crop Protection Association, and financed by neonicotinoid manufacturers Bayer CropScience and Syngenta.
In 2001, the United States Patent and Trademark Office ruled in favor of Syngenta which had filed a suit against Bayer for patent infringement on a class of neonicotinoid insecticides.

Seed treatment

seed dressingpolymer seed coatingseed dressings
One seed treatment, imidacloprid, from the neonicotinoid family of insecticides, is controversial and was banned in France for use on maize, due to that government's belief that the chemical was implicated in recent dramatic drops in bee counts, and possibly in Colony Collapse Disorder.

Bayer

Bayer AGBayer CropScienceBayer HealthCare
Neonicotinoids (sometimes shortened to neonics ) are a class of neuro-active insecticides chemically similar to nicotine. In the 1980s Shell and in the 1990s Bayer started work on their development.

Guttation

Girolami et al. (2005) found that guttation drops from corn plants germinated from neonicotinoid-coated seeds could contain amounts of insecticide consistently higher than 10 mg/l, and up to 200 mg/l for the neonicotinoid imidacloprid.

Pesticide

pesticidescrop sprayingchemical pesticides
The main argument against Montreal's ban is that once farmers are no longer allowed to use neonicotinoids, they would likely use dangerous pesticide sprays on seeds.
Neonicotinoids are a class of neuro-active insecticides chemically similar to nicotine.

Desnitro-imidacloprid

However, the breakdown product desnitro-imidacloprid, which is formed in a mammal's body during metabolism as well as in environmental breakdown of imidacloprid, has a charged nitrogen and shows high affinity to mammalian nAChRs.
Desnitro-imidacloprid is a metabolite of the insecticide imidacloprid, a very common insecticide and the most important member of the class of insecticides called neonicotinoids, the only significant new class of insecticides to be developed between 1970 and 2000.

Pest Management Regulatory Agency

federal jurisdiction
Use of pesticides in Canada is a matter of federal jurisdiction, which left the B.C. government free to wait for federal action.
In June 2017, a prothonotary in the Federal Court ruled in David Suzuki Foundation v. Canada (Health) that, in a review of the neonicotinoid clothianidin, Bayer CropScience "failed to satisfy the first branch of the Sierra Club test".

Bumblebee

Bombusbumble beebumblebees
Neonicotinoids may be responsible for detrimental effects on bumble bee colony growth and queen production.
The European Food Safety Authority ruled that three neonicotinoid pesticides (clothianidin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam) presented a high risk for bees.

Bombus affinis

B. affinisrusty-patched bumblebee
For example, Bombus affinis, a bumblebee endemic to North America, has decreased in nearly 90% of its natural habitats, much of which has been attributed to the use of neonicotinoid based pesticides.
Neonicotinoids are pesticides that are toxic to bees in particular, but they are commonly used for pest control on crops and turf.

Royal Dutch Shell

ShellShell OilRoyal Dutch/Shell
Neonicotinoids (sometimes shortened to neonics ) are a class of neuro-active insecticides chemically similar to nicotine. In the 1980s Shell and in the 1990s Bayer started work on their development.

Organophosphate

organophosphatesphosphate esterorganophosphorous
Compared to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, neonicotinoids cause less toxicity in birds and mammals than insects.

Overwintering

overwinteroverwinterswintering
Some sources have proposed that neonicotinoids reduce a bee colony's ability to survive the winter.

European Union

EUEuropeanEurope
In 2013, the European Union and a few neighbouring countries restricted the use of certain neonicotinoids;