Neoplasm

tumortumorstumourneoplasticneoplasmstumoursneoplasiatumor cellstumor cellsolid tumors
A neoplasm is a type of abnormal and excessive growth, called neoplasia, of tissue.wikipedia
2,443 Related Articles

Benign tumor

benignbenign tumourbenign neoplasm
ICD-10 classifies neoplasms into four main groups: benign neoplasms, in situ neoplasms, malignant neoplasms, and neoplasms of uncertain or unknown behavior.
A benign tumor is a mass of cells (tumor) that lacks the ability to invade neighboring tissue (spread throughout the body) or metastasize.

Cancer

cancersmalignanciescancerous
ICD-10 classifies neoplasms into four main groups: benign neoplasms, in situ neoplasms, malignant neoplasms, and neoplasms of uncertain or unknown behavior. Individuals with a germ line mutation causing deficiency in any of 34 DNA repair genes (see article DNA repair-deficiency disorder) are at increased risk of cancer.
They form a subset of neoplasms.

Carcinoma in situ

carcinoma ''in situcarcinoma in-situin situ
ICD-10 classifies neoplasms into four main groups: benign neoplasms, in situ neoplasms, malignant neoplasms, and neoplasms of uncertain or unknown behavior.
While they are a form of neoplasm, there is disagreement over whether CIS should be classified as cancer.

Tumour heterogeneity

heterogeneitytumor heterogeneitycancer cell heterogeneity
Neoplastic tumors are often heterogeneous and contain more than one type of cell, but their initiation and continued growth is usually dependent on a single population of neoplastic cells.
Tumour heterogeneity describes the observation that different tumour cells can show distinct morphological and phenotypic profiles, including cellular morphology, gene expression, metabolism, motility, proliferation, and metastatic potential.

Melanocytic nevus

molemolesmelanocytic nevi
In the overall population, a slight majority of melanomas do not form in an existing mole, but rather create a new growth on the skin.

Dysplasia

dysplasticvulvar dysplasiaHyperchromatism
Prior to the abnormal growth of tissue, as neoplasia, cells often undergo an abnormal pattern of growth, such as metaplasia or dysplasia.
Dysplasia is often indicative of an early neoplastic process.

Leukemia

leukaemialeukemiasleukemic
For lymphoid neoplasms, e.g. lymphoma and leukemia, clonality is proven by the amplification of a single rearrangement of their immunoglobulin gene (for B cell lesions) or T cell receptor gene (for T cell lesions).
Leukemias and lymphomas both belong to a broader group of tumors that affect the blood, bone marrow, and lymphoid system, known as tumors of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues.

Swelling (medical)

swellingswollenswell
The word originally referred to any form of swelling, neoplastic or not.
Swelling is a transient abnormal enlargement of a body part or area caused not by neoplasm (proliferation of cells) but by accumulation of interstitial fluid (fluid in tissues).

Metaplasia

metaplastica change in the type of cellsmetaplastic bone
Prior to the abnormal growth of tissue, as neoplasia, cells often undergo an abnormal pattern of growth, such as metaplasia or dysplasia.
The medical significance of metaplasia is that in some sites where pathological irritation is present, cells may progress from metaplasia, to develop dysplasia, and then malignant neoplasia (cancer).

Clone (cell biology)

cloneclonalclones
These cells are presumed to be clonal – that is, they are derived from the same cell,

Lymphoma

lymphomaslymphatic cancerlymphosarcoma
For lymphoid neoplasms, e.g. lymphoma and leukemia, clonality is proven by the amplification of a single rearrangement of their immunoglobulin gene (for B cell lesions) or T cell receptor gene (for T cell lesions).
Lymphomas in the strict sense are any neoplasms of the lymphatic tissues (lympho- + -oma).

Chemotherapy

chemotherapeuticantineoplasticantineoplastic agent
Anaerobic exercise has been found to be beneficial in reducing fatigue in people with solid tumours.

DNA repair

DNA damagerepairtranslesion synthesis
Individuals with a germ line mutation causing deficiency in any of 34 DNA repair genes (see article DNA repair-deficiency disorder) are at increased risk of cancer.
While this constitutes only 0.000165% of the human genome's approximately 6 billion bases (3 billion base pairs), unrepaired lesions in critical genes (such as tumor suppressor genes) can impede a cell's ability to carry out its function and appreciably increase the likelihood of tumor formation and contribute to tumour heterogeneity.

Radiation therapy

radiotherapyradiation oncologyradiation
The process involves inserting the x-ray tube through the anus into the rectum and placing it against the cancerous tissue, then high doses of X-rays are emitted directly into the tumor at two weekly intervals.

Lesion

lesionsbrain lesionslesion studies
In modern English, tumor is used as a synonym for neoplasm (a solid or fluid-filled cystic lesion that may or may not be formed by an abnormal growth of neoplastic cells) that appears enlarged in size.
If a lesion is caused by a tumor it can be classified as malignant or benign after analysis of a biopsy.

Exogeny

exogenousexogenicexogenously
Additional DNA damages can arise from exposure to exogenous agents.

Tumor microenvironment

microenvironmenttumour microenvironmenthostile tumor microenvironment
An expanded view of field effect has been termed "etiologic field effect", which encompasses not only molecular and pathologic changes in pre-neoplastic cells but also influences of exogenous environmental factors and molecular changes in the local microenvironment on neoplastic evolution from tumor initiation to patient death.
The tumor microenvironment (TME) is the environment around a tumor, including the surrounding blood vessels, immune cells, fibroblasts, signaling molecules and the extracellular matrix (ECM).

P53

TP53p53 genep53 protein
Some germ line mutations in DNA repair genes cause up to 100% lifetime chance of cancer (e.g., p53 mutations).
More than 50 percent of human tumors contain a mutation or deletion of the TP53 gene.

Cyst

cystscysticencyst
Cysts (such as sebaceous cysts) are also referred to as tumors, even though they have no neoplastic cells.
Once that mutation has occurred, the affected cells divide incessantly (and become known as cancerous), forming a tumour.

MLH1

MlhhMLH1mutL homolog 1
In further examples, epigenetic defects were found at frequencies of between 13%-100% for the DNA repair genes BRCA1, WRN, FANCB, FANCF, MGMT, MLH1, MSH2, MSH4, ERCC1, XPF, NEIL1 and ATM.
A field defect is an area or "field" of epithelium that has been preconditioned by epigenetic changes and/or mutations so as to predispose it towards development of cancer.

Somatic evolution in cancer

driverclonal evolutionsomatic alterations
In the colon, a field defect probably arises by natural selection of a mutant or epigenetically altered cell among the stem cells at the base of one of the intestinal crypts on the inside surface of the colon.

O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase

MGMTO6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferaseMGMT''' protein
For example, of 113 sequential colorectal cancers, only four had a missense mutation in the DNA repair gene MGMT, while the majority had reduced MGMT expression due to methylation of the MGMT promoter region (an epigenetic alteration).
A field defect is an area or "field" of epithelium that has been preconditioned by epigenetic changes and/or mutations so as to predispose it towards development of cancer.

Carcinogenesis

tumorigenesisoncogenesisoncogenic
Various other terms have been used to describe this phenomenon, including "field effect", "field cancerization", and "field carcinogenesis".
These early neoplastic changes must be distinguished from hyperplasia, a reversible increase in cell division caused by an external stimulus, such as a hormonal imbalance or chronic irritation.

DNA mismatch repair

mismatch repairMut'''LDNA repair machinery
Mutation rates strongly increase in cells defective in DNA mismatch repair or in homologous recombinational repair (HRR).
A field defect (field cancerization) is an area of epithelium that has been preconditioned by epigenetic or genetic changes, predisposing it towards development of cancer.