Neoplatonism

NeoplatonicNeoplatonistNeo-PlatonicNeoplatonistsNeo-PlatonismNeo-PlatonistThe OneNeo-PlatonistsNeoplatonic philosophyNeo-Platonistic
Neoplatonism is a strand of Platonic philosophy that emerged in the third century AD against the background of Hellenistic philosophy and religion.wikipedia
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Monism

monisticmonistMonad
Even though neoplatonism primarily circumscribes the thinkers who are now labeled Neoplatonists and not their ideas, there are some ideas that are common to neoplatonic systems, for example, the monistic idea that all of reality can be derived from a single principle, "the One".

Hellenistic philosophy

HellenisticHellenismHellenistic philosophers
Neoplatonism is a strand of Platonic philosophy that emerged in the third century AD against the background of Hellenistic philosophy and religion.
Hellenistic philosophy is the period of Western philosophy and Middle Eastern philosophy that was developed in the Hellenistic period following Aristotle and ending with the beginning of Neoplatonism.

Porphyry (philosopher)

PorphyryPorphyriusPorphyry of Tyre
After Plotinus there were three distinct periods in the history of neoplatonism: the work of his student Porphyry; that of Iamblichus and his school in Syria; and the period in the fifth and sixth centuries, when the Academies in Alexandria and Athens flourished. Thomas Aquinas had direct access to works by Proclus, Simplicius and Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, and he knew about other Neoplatonists, such as Plotinus and Porphyry, through secondhand sources.
305 CE) was a philosopher, now described as Neoplatonic, born in Tyre, in the Roman Empire.

Plotinus

PlotinianPlotinPlotino
The term does not encapsulate a set of ideas as much as it encapsulates a chain of thinkers which began with Ammonius Saccas and his student Plotinus ( c. Thomas Aquinas had direct access to works by Proclus, Simplicius and Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, and he knew about other Neoplatonists, such as Plotinus and Porphyry, through secondhand sources. On the one hand, it differentiates the philosophical doctrines of Plotinus and his successors from those of the historical Plato.
Historians of the 19th century invented the term Neoplatonism and applied it to Plotinus and his philosophy, which was influential during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages.

Ammonius Saccas

AmmoniusAmmonius of Alexandria
The term does not encapsulate a set of ideas as much as it encapsulates a chain of thinkers which began with Ammonius Saccas and his student Plotinus ( c.
Ammonius Saccas (fl. 3rd century AD) was a Greek philosopher from Alexandria who was often referred to as one of the founders of Neoplatonism.

Christian philosophy

Christian philosopherChristianChristian philosophers
In the Middle Ages, neoplatonic ideas were studied and discussed by Muslim, Christian, and Jewish thinkers.

Solomon ibn Gabirol

Ibn GabirolAvicebronGabirol
In the Islamic cultural sphere, neoplatonic texts were available in Arabic and Persian translations, and notable thinkers such as al-Farabi, Solomon ibn Gabirol (Avicebron), Avicenna, and Moses Maimonides incorporated neoplatonic elements into their own thinking.
Solomon ibn Gabirol (also Solomon ben Judah; שלמה בן יהודה אבן גבירול Shlomo Ben Yehuda ibn Gabirol, ; أبو أيوب سليمان بن يحيى بن جبيرول Abu Ayyub Sulayman bin Yahya bin Jabirul, ) was an 11th-century Andalusian poet and Jewish philosopher with a Neo-Platonic bent.

Islamic philosophy

Islamic philosopherphilosophyIslamic thought
In the Middle Ages, neoplatonic ideas were studied and discussed by Muslim, Christian, and Jewish thinkers.
In its narrowest sense it is a translation of Falsafa, meaning those particular schools of thought that most reflect the influence of Greek systems of philosophy such as Neoplatonism and Aristotelianism.

Perennial philosophy

PerennialismPerennialistphilosophia perennis
Neoplatonism also had a strong influence on the Perennial philosophy of the Italian Renaissance thinkers Marsilio Ficino and Pico della Mirandola, and continues through nineteenth-century Universalism and modern-day spirituality and nondualism.
Perennialism has its roots in the Renaissance interest in neo-Platonism and its idea of the One, from which all existence emanates.

Proclus

Proclus DiadochusProclus LycaeusProclian
Thomas Aquinas had direct access to works by Proclus, Simplicius and Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, and he knew about other Neoplatonists, such as Plotinus and Porphyry, through secondhand sources.
Proclus Lycaeus (8 February 412 – 17 April 485 AD), called the Successor (Greek Πρόκλος ὁ Διάδοχος, Próklos ho Diádokhos), was a Greek Neoplatonist philosopher, one of the last major classical philosophers (see Damascius).

Avicenna

Ibn SinaIbn SīnāAbu Ali ibn Sina
In the Islamic cultural sphere, neoplatonic texts were available in Arabic and Persian translations, and notable thinkers such as al-Farabi, Solomon ibn Gabirol (Avicebron), Avicenna, and Moses Maimonides incorporated neoplatonic elements into their own thinking.
Greco-Roman (Mid- and Neo-Platonic, and Aristotelian) texts translated by the Kindi school were commented, redacted and developed substantially by Islamic intellectuals, who also built upon Persian and Indian mathematical systems, astronomy, algebra, trigonometry and medicine.

Simplicius of Cilicia

SimpliciusSimplicio
Thomas Aquinas had direct access to works by Proclus, Simplicius and Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, and he knew about other Neoplatonists, such as Plotinus and Porphyry, through secondhand sources.
Simplicius of Cilicia (Σιμπλίκιος ὁ Κίλιξ; c. 490 – c. 560 ) was a disciple of Ammonius Hermiae and Damascius, and was one of the last of the Neoplatonists.

Nondualism

non-dualnondualitynondual
Neoplatonism also had a strong influence on the Perennial philosophy of the Italian Renaissance thinkers Marsilio Ficino and Pico della Mirandola, and continues through nineteenth-century Universalism and modern-day spirituality and nondualism.
While the term "nondualism" is derived from Advaita Vedanta, descriptions of nondual consciousness can be found within Hinduism (Turiya, sahaja), Buddhism (emptiness, pariniṣpanna, rigpa), Islam (Wahdat al Wujud, Fanaa, and Haqiqah) and western Christian and neo-Platonic traditions (henosis, mystical union).

Platonism

PlatonicPlatonistPlatonists
Neoplatonism is a strand of Platonic philosophy that emerged in the third century AD against the background of Hellenistic philosophy and religion.
In the 3rd century AD, Plotinus added mystical elements, establishing Neoplatonism, in which the summit of existence was the One or the Good, the source of all things; in virtue and meditation the soul had the power to elevate itself to attain union with the One.

Plato

Plato's dialoguesDialogues of PlatoPlatonic dialogues
On the one hand, it differentiates the philosophical doctrines of Plotinus and his successors from those of the historical Plato.
The so-called Neoplatonism of philosophers like Plotinus and Porphyry influenced Saint Augustine and thus Christianity.

Philosophy

philosophicalphilosopherhistory of philosophy
Neoplatonism is a strand of Platonic philosophy that emerged in the third century AD against the background of Hellenistic philosophy and religion.
The two main currents of early Islamic thought are Kalam which focuses on Islamic theology and Falsafa which was based on Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism.

Marsilio Ficino

FicinoMarsilius FicinusMarsiglio Ficino
Neoplatonism also had a strong influence on the Perennial philosophy of the Italian Renaissance thinkers Marsilio Ficino and Pico della Mirandola, and continues through nineteenth-century Universalism and modern-day spirituality and nondualism.
He was an astrologer, a reviver of Neoplatonism in touch with the major academics of his day and the first translator of Plato's complete extant works into Latin.

Jewish philosophy

Jewish theologyJewish philosopherJewish
In the Middle Ages, neoplatonic ideas were studied and discussed by Muslim, Christian, and Jewish thinkers.
Ibn Gabirol was one of the first teachers of Neoplatonism in Europe.

Aristotle

AristotelianAristotelesAristote
In the nearly six centuries from Plato's time to Plotinus', there had been an uninterrupted tradition of interpreting Plato which had begun with Aristotle and with the immediate successors of Plato's academy and continued on through a period of Platonism which is now referred to as Middle Platonism.
He influenced Islamic thought during the Middle Ages, as well as Christian theology, especially the Neoplatonism of the Early Church and the scholastic tradition of the Catholic Church.

Spirituality

spiritualspirituallyspiritual life
Neoplatonism also had a strong influence on the Perennial philosophy of the Italian Renaissance thinkers Marsilio Ficino and Pico della Mirandola, and continues through nineteenth-century Universalism and modern-day spirituality and nondualism.
He was one of the major figures in Transcendentalism, an early 19th-century liberal Protestant movement, which was rooted in English and German Romanticism, the Biblical criticism of Johann Gottfried Herder and Friedrich Schleiermacher, the skepticism of Hume, and Neo-Platonism.

Numenius of Apamea

Numenius
The most important forerunners from Greek philosophy were the Middle Platonists, such as Plutarch, and the neopythagoreans, especially Numenius of Apamea.
He was a Neopythagorean and forerunner of the Neoplatonists.

Neopythagoreanism

NeopythagoreanNeo-PythagoreanNeo-Pythagoreanism
The most important forerunners from Greek philosophy were the Middle Platonists, such as Plutarch, and the neopythagoreans, especially Numenius of Apamea.
Neopythagoreanism was influenced by Middle Platonism and in turn influenced Neoplatonism.

Middle Platonism

Middle PlatonistMiddle PlatonistsMiddle Platonic
In the nearly six centuries from Plato's time to Plotinus', there had been an uninterrupted tradition of interpreting Plato which had begun with Aristotle and with the immediate successors of Plato's academy and continued on through a period of Platonism which is now referred to as Middle Platonism. The most important forerunners from Greek philosophy were the Middle Platonists, such as Plutarch, and the neopythagoreans, especially Numenius of Apamea.
Middle Platonism is the modern name given to a stage in the development of Platonic philosophy, lasting from about 90 BC – when Antiochus of Ascalon rejected the scepticism of the New Academy – until the development of Neoplatonism under Plotinus in the 3rd century.

Meister Eckhart

EckhartMaster EckhartEckhart von Hochheim
The mystic Meister Eckhart (c.
Eckhart was schooled in medieval scholasticism and was well-acquainted with Aristotelianism, Augustinianism, and Neo-Platonism.

Thomas Aquinas

St. Thomas AquinasAquinasSaint Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas had direct access to works by Proclus, Simplicius and Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, and he knew about other Neoplatonists, such as Plotinus and Porphyry, through secondhand sources.
Thomas stands as a vehicle and modifier of Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism.