A report on Nepal

A topographic map of Nepal
Mount Everest, the highest peak on earth, lies on the Nepal–China border.
Köppen climate classification for Nepal
This land cover map of Nepal using Landsat 30 m (2010) data shows forest cover as the dominant type of land cover in Nepal.
The greater one-horned rhinoceros roams the sub-tropical grasslands of the Terai plains.
The Himalayan monal (Danphe), the national bird of Nepal, nests high in the Himalayas.
B.P. Koirala led the 1951 revolution, became the first democratically elected Prime Minister, and after being deposed and imprisoned in 1961, spent the rest of his life fighting for democracy.
Nepal has made progress with regard to minority rights in recent years.
Traffic Police personnel manually direct traffic at the busiest roads and junctions.
Gurkha Memorial, London
Nepal is one of the major contributors to UN peacekeeping missions.
The multipurpose Kukri knife (top) is the signature weapon of the Nepali armed forces, and is used by the Gurkhas, Nepal Army, Police and even security guards.
A proportional representation of Nepal exports, 2019
Real GPD per capita development of Nepal
Tourists view a greater one-horned rhinoceros from an elephant in Chitwan National Park.
While adults are employed in slavery-like conditions abroad, hundreds of thousands of children in the country are employed as child labour (not including the agricultural sector).
Middle Marsyangdi Hydroelectric Dam. Nepal has significant potential to generate hydropower, which it plans to export across South Asia.
Sadhus in Pashupatinath Temple
Historical development of life expectancy in Nepal
A Magar couple in their ethnic dress
Bhanubhakta Acharya, Nepali writer who translated the ancient Hindu epic Ramayana in the Nepali language
A Nepali man in Daura-Suruwal, coat and Dhaka topi, displays the bhoto during the Bhoto Jatra festival.
A dal-bhat thali with boiled rice, lentil soup, fried leafy greens, vegetable curry, yoghurt, papad and vegetable salad
Momo dumplings with chutney
Samayabaji (Newar cuisine)
Nepali children playing a variant of knucklebones, with pebbles
Nepali cricket fans are renowned for an exceptionally enthusiastic support of their national team.
"Nēpāla" in the late Brahmi script, in the Allahabad Pillar inscription of Samudragupta (350-375 CE).

Landlocked country in South Asia.

- Nepal

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Map of the Himalayas (including the Hindu Kush)


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The Himalayas, or Himalaya, are a mountain range in Asia, separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.

The Himalayas, or Himalaya, are a mountain range in Asia, separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.

Map of the Himalayas (including the Hindu Kush)
The 6000 km journey of the India landmass (Indian Plate) before its collision with Asia (Eurasian Plate) about 40 to 50 million years ago
Icefall on Khumbu Glacier
Gurudongmar Lake in Sikkim

The Himalayas abut or cross five countries: Bhutan, India, Nepal, China, and Pakistan.


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Landlocked country in the Eastern Himalayas, located in Southern Asia between China and India.

Landlocked country in the Eastern Himalayas, located in Southern Asia between China and India.

Bhutan, shaded in green in the center of three Himalayan regions, shown on a 1912 map of Western Asia
The dzong in the Paro valley, built in 1646.
Trashigang Dzong, built in 1659.
Sketch of Bhutan's interior, 1783
Painting of Bhutan, 1813
British envoys in Bhutan's royal court in 1905
A thrikhep (throne cover) from the 19th century. Throne covers were placed atop the temple cushions used by high lamas. The central circular swirling symbol is the gankyil in its mode as the "Four Joys".
Leaders of Afghanistan, Bhutan, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Maldives and Nepal at the 16th SAARC Summit in Thimphu, 2010
A topographic map of Bhutan.
Snowfall in Bhutan
The takin is Bhutan's national animal.
Himalayan Marmot at Tshophu Lake, Bhutan
Himalayan black bear
King Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck and Queen consort Jetsun Pema of Bhutan with the then Emperor of Japan Akihito
The permanent mission of Bhutan to the United Nations in New York City
Prime Minister of Bhutan Tshering Tobgay with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry in 2015.
A map of Bhutan showing its borders with China and India.
A royal guard of Bhutan in 1905
The Royal Bhutan Army Chief of Staff (left) and Indian Army Chief of Staff (right) in 2006
Women of Bhutan
Ethnic Nepalese ("Lhotshampa") migrants that were forcefully expelled from Bhutan, and arrived in Nepal in the early 1990s.
A proportional representation of Bhutan exports, 2019
The Bhutan Power Corporation headquarters in Thimphu. Bhutan's principal export is hydroelectricity.
Modern and traditional bridges over a river in Panbang
GDP per capita development in Bhutan, since 1990.
Rice terraces in one of Bhutan's fertile valleys.
Office of the SAARC Development Fund in Thimphu
Bhutan electricity production by year
The Le Méridien Thimphu is part of Bhutan's burgeoning tourism industry.
A Druk Air Airbus A319 in Paro Airport
The ILCS Campus Taktse Bhutan.
Bhutanese thanka of Mt. Meru and the Buddhist universe (19th century, Trongsa Dzong, Trongsa, Bhutan)
The National Library of Bhutan during snowfall
Chaam, sacred masked dances, are annually performed during religious festivals.
Traditional dish with lemon glazed chicken, sauteed spinach and steamed Bhutanese red rice
Changlimithang Stadium during a parade.
Taekwondo between Bhutan and Vietnam
A Bhutanese archery competition
Gangkar Puensum, the highest mountain in Bhutan
Sub-alpine Himalayan landscape
A Himalayan peak from Bumthang
Jigme Dorji National Park
The Haa Valley in Western Bhutan

Nepal and Bangladesh are located near Bhutan but do not share a land border.


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Manjushree, with Chandrahrasa, the Buddhist deity said to have created the valley
Map of Kathmandu, 1802
Skyline of Kathmandu, circa 1793
Kathmandu Durbar Square, 1852
View of the Kathmandu valley from Swayambhunath, 1863
The now demolished old royal palace in 1920
Office of the Prime Minister of Nepal in Singha Durbar, Kathmandu
Consulate of the Netherlands. Kathmandu hosts 28 diplomatic missions
Public baths, Kathmandu. 1979
Pashupatinath as seen from the banks of the Bagmati river
Boudhanath Stupa, one of the largest in Nepal, shown during renovations following the 2015 earthquake.
Stone carvings, called Chaityas, seen in street corners and courtyards
National Museum of Nepal
A Buddhist statue display in Kathmandu
Asa Archives
Traditional Buddhist musical performance during Gunla
One of the typical Nepali meals Dal bhat in Kathmandu
President of Nepal Ram Baran Yadav observing the street festival of Yenya, which literally means "festival of Kathmandu"
Samyak, a Buddhist festival during which statues of Buddhas from the ancient monasteries are displayed together. Note the statue of Hanuman next to the Buddhas in the picture, a common example of religious harmony in Kathmandu.
Nepali Lakhe dancer
Kathmandu valley as seen from Halchowk during Deepawali, 2013
Central Bank of Nepal
Hotel Shanker is one of the city's popular heritage hotels
Hyatt Regency, Kathmandu
Arch bridges over the Dhobi Khola river in Baneshwor, Kathmandu
A Nepal Bhasa magazine cover in 1951
Dasharath Rangasala
SAARC Secretariat in Kathmandu
Urban expansion in Kathmandu, 2015.
The green, vegetated slopes that surround the Kathmandu metro area (light grey, image centre) include both forest reserves and national parks
Araniko Highway connects Kathmandu to Bhaktapur and onwards to the Chinese border.
Northeastern Kathmandu with Gaurishankar in background.
Kathmandu valley as seen from the Shivapuri hills
Singha Durbar
Basantapur Durbar Square
Entrance to a building in the Durbar Square
Goddess Kumari in a chariot procession
Ghanta Ghar and surrounding areas
Dharahara in 2014
Alleyway in Boudhanath

Kathmandu, officially the Kathmandu Metropolitan City, is the capital and the most populous city of Nepal with 845,767 inhabitants living in 105,649 households in 2021 and 2.9 million people in its urban agglomeration.


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Vanga Kingdom and erstwhile neighbours in ancient South Asia
7th century buddhist monastery. Known as Somapura Mahavihara
The Pala Empire was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal.
The Sixty Dome Mosque is the largest mosque in the UNESCO protected Mosque City of Bagerhat.
Choto Sona Mosque, built during the reign of Sultan Alauddin Hussain Shah
Kusumba Mosque
Shipbuilding was a major industry in the Bengal Sultanate and later in Mughal Bengal
The Bibi Mariam Cannon (Lady Mary Cannon) was used by the Mughals to defend their bases.
Lalbagh Fort was the residence of the Mughal viceroy Shaista Khan.
Portuguese envoys (top left) at the imperial court of emperor Akbar. The Portuguese settlement in Chittagong flourished until the Mughals expelled the Portuguese in 1666.
Lord Clive meeting with Mir Jafar after the Battle of Plassey, which led to the overthrow of the last independent Nawab of Bengal
Founding conference of the All India Muslim League in Dhaka, 1906
The Dominion of Pakistan in 1947, with East Bengal its eastern part
Women students of Dhaka University marching in defiance of the Section 144 prohibition on assembly during the Bengali Language Movement in early 1953
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (left) and Munier Chowdhury (centre) visiting Matiul Islam (right), an East Bengali student at Harvard during the late 1950s
Museum of Independence, Dhaka
Sheikh Mujib casting his ballot during a general election. He was given the popular title of Bangabandhu (Friend of Bengal) and is regarded as Bangladesh's founding leader.
Ziaur Rahman with members of the Dutch royal family in 1978
Muhammad Yunus (center) celebrating the Nobel Peace Prize in 2006 with his family in Oslo, Norway
Rohingya refugees entering Bangladesh from Myanmar
Physical map of Bangladesh
A Bengal tiger, the national animal, in the Sundarbans
Bangabhaban, the official residence of the President of Bangladesh, was built in 1905 during the British Raj for use by the Viceroy of India and the Governor of Bengal.
Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi during bilateral talks with Bangladeshi Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina at the Prime Minister's Office in Dhaka
The National Parliament of Bangladesh
The Supreme Court of Bangladesh
Map of Bangladesh UN Peacekeeping Force deployments
First South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) meeting in 1985 in Dhaka (l-r, top row: the presidents of Pakistan and the Maldives, the king of Bhutan, the president of Bangladesh, the prime minister of India, the king of Nepal and the president of Sri Lanka)
U.S. Special Presidential Envoy for Climate John Kerry meeting Bangladeshi Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina at her residence in Dhaka in April 2021
The Rapid Action Battalion has been sanctioned by the United States for human rights abuses
Historical development of GDP per capita
Construction of Padma Bridge, the longest bridge on the Ganges, by China Major Bridge Engineering Co. Ltd. The bridge was designed by AECOM.
Hotels and office blocks in an upmarket neighborhood of Dhaka
Paddy fields dominate the country's farmland. Bangladesh is a top global producer of rice (3rd), potatoes (7th), tropical fruits (6th), jute (2nd), and farmed fish (5th).
A Boeing 777 of the national flag carrier Biman Bangladesh Airlines
Coal and natural-gas fields in Bangladesh, 2011
In 2018, the first payload of SpaceX's Falcon 9 Block 5 rocket was the Bangabandhu-1 satellite built by Thales Alenia Space
The Charyapada scrolls are the oldest surviving text of the Bengali language. The photograph was taken at the Rajshahi College Library
Chakma alphabets are indigenous to the Chittagong Hill Tracts
Eid prayers for Muslims at Barashalghar, Debidwar, Comilla
Bangladeshis celebrating Pahela Baishakh as a mark of the beginning of Bengali new year
Literacy rates in Bangladesh districts
Faculty of Sciences at the University of Dhaka; The Curzon Hall
A Bangladeshi nurse in Kutupalong Refugee Camp
Historical development of life expectancy in Bangladesh
A preserved cloth of historic Bengali fine muslin, which is now extinct
Syed Mujtaba Ali
Muslim feminist Begum Rokeya and her husband in 1898
The 18th century terracotta Hindu Kantanagar Temple in Dinajpur
A Baul from Lalon Shah's shrine in Kushtia
Embroidery on Nakshi kantha (embroidered quilt), centuries-old Bengali art tradition
Traditional Bangladeshi Meal: Mustard seed Ilish Curry, Dhakai Biryani and Pitha
A Nouka Baich boat race
Bangladesh team on practice session at Sher-e-Bangla National Cricket Stadium
Anwar Hossain playing Siraj-ud-Daulah, the last independent Nawab of Bengal, in the 1967 film Nawab Sirajuddaulah
Beds of zamindars kept at the Bangladesh National Museum

Bangladesh ({{IPAc-en|%|b|{|N|g|l|@|"|d|E|S|,_|%|b|A:|N|-}}; বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia. It is the eighth-most populous country in the world, with a population exceeding 165 million people in an area of either 148460 km2 or 147570 km2, making it one of the most densely populated countries in the world. Bangladesh shares land borders with India to the west, north, and east, and Myanmar to the southeast; to the south it has a coastline along the Bay of Bengal. It is narrowly separated from Bhutan and Nepal by the Siliguri Corridor; and from China by 100 km of the Indian state of Sikkim in the north. Dhaka, the capital and largest city, is the nation's economic, political, and cultural hub.


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State in northeastern India.

State in northeastern India.

Guru Rinpoche, patron saint of Sikkim
Flag of Sikkim during its independent monarchy.
An 1876 map of Sikkim, depicting Chomto Dong Lake in northern Sikkim. However, the whole of Chumbi and Darjeeling are not depicted as part of Sikkim in the map.
Sikkim is in lower center of image of the Tibetan Plateau- (NASA Satellite photo).
A waterfall in Sikkim
Sikkim Legislative Assembly
The red panda is the state animal of Sikkim.
Runway at Pakyong Airport, is the first greenfield airport to be constructed in the Northeast India.
Teesta River is considered the state's key waterway.
Gangtok to Siliguri Bus
Nathu La Pass – Indo-China Border
A little girl from Kaluk Bazaar
The traditional Gumpa dance being performed in Lachung during the Buddhist festival of Losar.
The Dro-dul Chorten Stupa in Gangtok.
Sikkim Manipal University Campus, Gangtok
M. G. Marg in Gangtok.
Jorethang at night time.
Elaichi, or cardamom, is the chief cash crop of Sikkim.
Temi Tea Garden, Namchi, Sikkim
Tea garden at Temi, Sikkim.
Terraced rice paddy fields of Sikkim.
Kirateshwar Mahadev Temple in Legship is dedicated to Hindu God Shiva.
Rumtek Monastery
Vishwa Vinayak Temple at Rhenock

Following the beginning of British rule in neighbouring India, Sikkim allied with Britain against their common adversary, Nepal.

Newar people

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The Vajji or Vrijji Mahajanapada and Malla Mahajanapada in 600 BCE; Notable Licchavi (kingdom) and Malla (Nepal) of Nepal Mandala originated from respective ones
Newar traders in Lhasa in the 1940s.
Temple of Pashupatinath.
Statue of Vairochana Buddha on the Swayambhu Stupa.
Buddhist deity Manjusri
The Nyetamaru Ajima masked dance is performed at Nyeta in Kathmandu in April.
Vasudhara Mandala, by Jasaraja Jirili, Nepal, dated 1365.
Kathmandu Durbar Square.
Miaoying Temple, an example of Newar architecture in China
Chariot pulled in procession during Biska Jatra in Bhaktapur.
One of the popular sweet, "Yomari"
Mandala made on the third day after death as part of death rituals among Buddhist Newars
Nyatapola Temple in Bhaktapur
Statue in Lalitpur
Swayambhunath in Kathmandu
The world-famous Golden Gate of Bhaktapur

Newar (नेवार, endonym: Newa; नेवा, Pracalit script:) or Nepami, are the historical inhabitants of the Kathmandu Valley and its surrounding areas in Nepal and the creators of its historic heritage and civilisation.

Aerial view of Terai plains near Biratnagar, Nepal


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Aerial view of Terai plains near Biratnagar, Nepal
The light green areas indicate the Terai in Nepal
Jungle in Uttarakhand

The Terai or Tarai is a lowland region in northern India and southern Nepal that lies south of the outer foothills of the Himalayas, the Sivalik Hills, and north of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.

Ancient kingdoms and cities of India during the time of the Buddha (circa 500 BCE) – modern-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan


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Indian religion or philosophical tradition based on a series of original teachings attributed to Gautama Buddha.

Indian religion or philosophical tradition based on a series of original teachings attributed to Gautama Buddha.

Ancient kingdoms and cities of India during the time of the Buddha (circa 500 BCE) – modern-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan
The gilded "Emaciated Buddha statue" in an Ubosoth in Bangkok representing the stage of his asceticism
Enlightenment of Buddha, Kushan dynasty, late 2nd to early 3rd century CE, Gandhara.
The Buddha teaching the Four Noble Truths. Sanskrit manuscript. Nalanda, Bihar, India.
Traditional Tibetan Buddhist Thangka depicting the Wheel of Life with its six realms
Ramabhar Stupa in Kushinagar, Uttar Pradesh, India is regionally believed to be Buddha's cremation site.
An aniconic depiction of the Buddha's spiritual liberation (moksha) or awakening (bodhi), at Sanchi. The Buddha is not depicted, only symbolized by the Bodhi tree and the empty seat.
Dharma Wheel and triratna symbols from Sanchi Stupa number 2.
Buddhist monks and nuns praying in the Buddha Tooth Relic Temple of Singapore
A depiction of Siddhartha Gautama in a previous life prostrating before the past Buddha Dipankara. After making a resolve to be a Buddha, and receiving a prediction of future Buddhahood, he becomes a "bodhisattva".
Bodhisattva Maitreya, Gandhara (3rd century), Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Sermon in the Deer Park depicted at Wat Chedi Liam, near Chiang Mai, Northern Thailand.
Buddhist monks collect alms in Si Phan Don, Laos. Giving is a key virtue in Buddhism.
An ordination ceremony at Wat Yannawa in Bangkok. The Vinaya codes regulate the various sangha acts, including ordination.
Living at the root of a tree (trukkhamulik'anga) is one of the dhutaṅgas, a series of optional ascetic practices for Buddhist monastics.
Kōdō Sawaki practicing Zazen ("sitting dhyana")
Seated Buddha, Gal Viharaya, Polonnawura, Sri Lanka.
Kamakura Daibutsu, Kōtoku-in, Kamakura, Japan.
Statue of Buddha in Wat Phra Si Rattana Mahathat, Phitsanulok, Thailand
An 18th century Mongolian miniature which depicts the generation of the Vairocana Mandala
A section of the Northern wall mural at the Lukhang Temple depicting tummo, the three channels (nadis) and phowa
Monks debating at Sera Monastery, Tibet
Tibetan Buddhist prostration practice at Jokhang, Tibet.
Vegetarian meal at Buddhist temple. East Asian Buddhism tends to promote vegetarianism.
A depiction of the supposed First Buddhist council at Rajgir. Communal recitation was one of the original ways of transmitting and preserving Early Buddhist texts.
Gandhara birchbark scroll fragments (c. 1st century) from British Library Collection
The Tripiṭaka Koreana in South Korea, an edition of the Chinese Buddhist canon carved and preserved in over 81,000 wood printing blocks
Buddhist monk Geshe Konchog Wangdu reads Mahayana sutras from an old woodblock copy of the Tibetan Kanjur.
Mahākāśyapa meets an Ājīvika ascetic, one of the common Śramaṇa groups in ancient India
Ajanta Caves, Cave 10, a first period type chaitya worship hall with stupa but no idols.
Sanchi Stupa No. 3, near Vidisha, Madhya Pradesh, India.
Map of the Buddhist missions during the reign of Ashoka according to the Edicts of Ashoka.
Extent of Buddhism and trade routes in the 1st century CE.
Buddhist expansion throughout Asia
A Buddhist triad depicting, left to right, a Kushan, the future buddha Maitreya, Gautama Buddha, the bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara, and a monk. Second–third century. Guimet Museum
Site of Nalanda University, a great center of Mahāyāna thought
Vajrayana adopted deities such as Bhairava, known as Yamantaka in Tibetan Buddhism.
Angkor Thom build by Khmer King Jayavarman VII (c. 1120–1218).
Distribution of major Buddhist traditions
Buddhists of various traditions, Yeunten Ling Tibetan Institute
Monastics and white clad laypersons celebrate Vesak, Vipassakna Dhaurak, Cambodia
Chinese Buddhist monks performing a formal ceremony in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China.
Tibetan Buddhists practicing Chöd with various ritual implements, such as the Damaru drum, hand-bell, and Kangling (thighbone trumpet).
Ruins of a temple at the Erdene Zuu Monastery complex in Mongolia.
Buryat Buddhist monk in Siberia
1893 World Parliament of Religions in Chicago
Interior of the Thai Buddhist wat in Nukari, Nurmijärvi, Finland
Percentage of Buddhists by country, according to the Pew Research Center, as of 2010
A painting by G. B. Hooijer (c. 1916–1919) reconstructing a scene of Borobudur, the largest Buddhist temple in the world.
Frontispiece of the Chinese Diamond Sūtra, the oldest known dated printed book in the world
The Dharmachakra, a sacred symbol which represents Buddhism and its traditions.
An image of a lantern used in the Vesak Festival, which celebrates the birth, enlightenment and Parinirvana of Gautama Buddha.

The evidence of the early texts suggests that Siddhartha Gautama was born in Lumbini, present-day Nepal and grew up in Kapilavastu, a town in the Ganges Plain, near the modern Nepal–India border, and that he spent his life in what is now modern Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.

Khas or Kus group, Goorkha, dominant tribe, Nipal

Gorkha Kingdom

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Khas or Kus group, Goorkha, dominant tribe, Nipal
Postage stamp issued by Gorkha government in 1907
Gorkhapatra dated January 9, 1933
Gurkha soldiers arrive in Japan in 1946 as part of Allied occupation forces
The old king's Darbar at Gorkha
Mohar of Gorkha king Prithvi Narayan Shah dated Saka Era 1685 (1763 CE)
Metal Window
Stone history
Gorkha Durbar
King Prithavi Pal
Image of Goddess & Gorkha Palace
Gorkha Tallo Durbar
Shree Panch Bada Maharajadhiraj Prithavi Narayan Shah Dev
Nepali Cannon

Gorkha Kingdom (गोरखा राज्य) was a Khas kingdom in the confederation of 24 states known as Chaubisi rajya, on the Indian subcontinent, present-day western Nepal.

Nepali language

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Indo-Aryan language of the sub-branch of Eastern Pahari.

Indo-Aryan language of the sub-branch of Eastern Pahari.

The Damupal Inscription in Dullu, Dailekh
Copper Inscription by King of Doti, Raika Mandhata Shahi, at Saka Era 1612 (1747 BS) in old Khas language using Devanagari script
Bhanubhakta Acharya, Aadi Kavi in Nepali-language literature

It is the official language and lingua franca of Nepal and one of the 22 scheduled languages in India.