Nephron

nephronsrenal tubulerenal tubulesrenal tubularkidney tubulesjuxtamedullary nephrontubuleskidney tubuletubular cellconvoluted tubules
The nephron (from Greek νεφρός – nephros, meaning "kidney") is the microscopic structural and functional unit of the kidney.wikipedia
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Renal corpuscle

vascular poleMalpighian BodiesMalpighian corpuscles
It is composed of a renal corpuscle and a renal tubule. These components function as the filtration unit and make up the renal corpuscle.
A renal corpuscle is the blood-filtering component of the nephron of the kidney.

Bowman's capsule

bowman capsule
The renal corpuscle consists of a tuft of capillaries called a glomerulus and an encompassing Bowman's capsule.
Bowman's capsule (or the Bowman capsule, capsula glomeruli, or glomerular capsule) is a cup-like sack at the beginning of the tubular component of a nephron in the mammalian kidney that performs the first step in the filtration of blood to form urine.

Tubule

tubulesporous tubulestubal
The renal tubule extends from the capsule.
Collecting tubules: terminal channels of the nephrons

Glomerulus (kidney)

glomerulusglomeruliglomerular
The renal corpuscle consists of a tuft of capillaries called a glomerulus and an encompassing Bowman's capsule.
The glomerulus, plural glomeruli, is a network of capillaries known as a tuft, located at the beginning of a nephron in the kidney.

Peritubular capillaries

peritubular capillary
The tubule has adjacent peritubular capillaries that run between the descending and ascending portions of the tubule.
In the renal system, peritubular capillaries are tiny blood vessels, supplied by the efferent arteriole, that travel alongside nephrons allowing reabsorption and secretion between blood and the inner lumen of the nephron.

Proximal tubule

proximal convoluted tubuleproximal renal tubuleproximal tubular
The tubule has five anatomically and functionally different parts: the proximal tubule, which has a convoluted section the proximal convoluted tubule followed by a straight section (proximal straight tubule); the loop of Henle, which has two parts, the descending loop of Henle ("descending loop") and the ascending loop of Henle ("ascending loop"); the distal convoluted tubule ("distal loop"); the connecting tubule, and the collecting ducts.
The proximal tubule is the segment of the nephron in kidneys which begins from the renal pole of the Bowman's capsule to the beginning of loop of Henle.

Renal physiology

tubular secretionkidney functionhyperosmolality
These components function as the filtration unit and make up the renal corpuscle.
Much of renal physiology is studied at the level of the nephron, the smallest functional unit of the kidney.

Loop of Henle

loops of HenleHenle’s loopnephron loop
The tubule has five anatomically and functionally different parts: the proximal tubule, which has a convoluted section the proximal convoluted tubule followed by a straight section (proximal straight tubule); the loop of Henle, which has two parts, the descending loop of Henle ("descending loop") and the ascending loop of Henle ("ascending loop"); the distal convoluted tubule ("distal loop"); the connecting tubule, and the collecting ducts.
In the kidney, the loop of Henle (or Henle's loop, Henle loop, nephron loop or its Latin counterpart ansa nephroni) is the portion of a nephron that leads from the proximal convoluted tubule to the distal convoluted tubule.

Distal convoluted tubule

distal tubuledistal convoluted tubulesdistal tubules
The tubule has five anatomically and functionally different parts: the proximal tubule, which has a convoluted section the proximal convoluted tubule followed by a straight section (proximal straight tubule); the loop of Henle, which has two parts, the descending loop of Henle ("descending loop") and the ascending loop of Henle ("ascending loop"); the distal convoluted tubule ("distal loop"); the connecting tubule, and the collecting ducts.
The distal convoluted tubule (DCT) is a portion of kidney nephron between the loop of Henle and the collecting tubule.

Reabsorption

reabsorbedtubular reabsorptionreabsorb
The four mechanisms used to create and process the filtrate (the result of which is to convert blood to urine) are filtration, reabsorption, secretion and excretion.
In renal physiology, reabsorption or tubular reabsorption is the process by which the nephron removes water and solutes from the tubular fluid (pre-urine) and returns them to the circulating blood.

Lumen (anatomy)

lumenluminallumina
The capsule and tubule are connected and are composed of epithelial cells with a lumen.
The interior of renal tubules and urinary collecting ducts

Connecting tubule

collecting tubulerenal collecting tubule
The tubule has five anatomically and functionally different parts: the proximal tubule, which has a convoluted section the proximal convoluted tubule followed by a straight section (proximal straight tubule); the loop of Henle, which has two parts, the descending loop of Henle ("descending loop") and the ascending loop of Henle ("ascending loop"); the distal convoluted tubule ("distal loop"); the connecting tubule, and the collecting ducts.
However, the embryological origin is more similar to the nephron than it is to the rest of the collecting duct (which derives from the ureteric bud), and other sources therefore classify the connecting tubule with the nephron.

Podocyte

podocytesfiltration slitsslit diaphragm
Blood is filtered as it passes through three layers: the endothelial cells of the capillary wall, its basement membrane, and between the foot processes of the podocytes of the lining of the capsule.
Small molecules such as water, glucose, and ionic salts are able to pass through the filtration slits and form an ultrafiltrate in the tubular fluid, which is further processed by the nephron to produce urine.

Aldosterone

receptors, aldosteroneadrenoglomerulotropin
Some of the hormones which signal the tubules to alter the reabsorption or secretion rate, and thereby maintain homeostasis, include (along with the substance affected) antidiuretic hormone (water), aldosterone (sodium, potassium), parathyroid hormone (calcium, phosphate), atrial natriuretic peptide (sodium) and brain natriuretic peptide (sodium).
It does so primarily by acting on the mineralocorticoid receptors in the distal tubules and collecting ducts of the nephron.

Polycystic kidney disease

polycystic kidneyAutosomal dominant polycystic kidney diseasepolycystic kidney diseases
Glomerular diseases include diabetic nephropathy, glomerulonephritis and IgA nephropathy; renal tubular diseases include acute tubular necrosis and polycystic kidney disease.
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD or PCKD, also known as polycystic kidney syndrome) is a genetic disorder in which the renal tubules become structurally abnormal, resulting in the development and growth of multiple cysts within the kidney.

Diabetic nephropathy

diabetic kidney diseasenephropathydiabetic nephropathies
Glomerular diseases include diabetic nephropathy, glomerulonephritis and IgA nephropathy; renal tubular diseases include acute tubular necrosis and polycystic kidney disease.
This is followed by multiple changes in the filtration units of the kidneys, the nephrons.

Acute tubular necrosis

tubular necrosisischemic renal failurekidney injury
Glomerular diseases include diabetic nephropathy, glomerulonephritis and IgA nephropathy; renal tubular diseases include acute tubular necrosis and polycystic kidney disease.
Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) is a medical condition involving the death of tubular epithelial cells that form the renal tubules of the kidneys.

Afferent arterioles

afferent arterioleafferent
Each glomerulus receives its blood supply from an afferent arteriole of the renal circulation.
The afferent arterioles are a group of blood vessels that supply the nephrons in many excretory systems.

Glucose

dextrose D -glucoseglucopyranose
Substances reabsorbed include: water, sodium, chloride, glucose, amino acids, lactate, magnesium, calcium, phosphate, uric acid, and bicarbonate.
The renal tubular cells can also produce glucose.

Collecting duct system

collecting ductcortical collecting ductcollecting ducts
The tubule has five anatomically and functionally different parts: the proximal tubule, which has a convoluted section the proximal convoluted tubule followed by a straight section (proximal straight tubule); the loop of Henle, which has two parts, the descending loop of Henle ("descending loop") and the ascending loop of Henle ("ascending loop"); the distal convoluted tubule ("distal loop"); the connecting tubule, and the collecting ducts.
The collecting duct system of the kidney consists of a series of tubules and ducts that physically connect nephrons to a minor calyx or directly to the renal pelvis.

Tubular fluid

The different stages of this fluid are collectively known as the tubular fluid.
Tubular fluid is the fluid in the tubules of the kidney.

Descending limb of loop of Henle

descending limbthin descending limb of the loop of Henlethin descending loop of Henle
Descending limb of loop of Henle
Within the nephron of the kidney, the descending limb of loop of Henle is the portion of the renal tubule constituting the first part of the loop of Henle.

Ascending limb of loop of Henle

thick ascending limbthin ascending limbascending limb
The tubule has five anatomically and functionally different parts: the proximal tubule, which has a convoluted section the proximal convoluted tubule followed by a straight section (proximal straight tubule); the loop of Henle, which has two parts, the descending loop of Henle ("descending loop") and the ascending loop of Henle ("ascending loop"); the distal convoluted tubule ("distal loop"); the connecting tubule, and the collecting ducts.
Within the nephron of the kidney, the ascending limb of the loop of Henle is a segment of the loop of Henle downstream of the descending limb, after the sharp bend of the loop.

Juxtaglomerular apparatus

JGAjuxtaglomerularkidney
The juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) is a specialized region associated with the nephron, but separate from it. It produces and secretes into the circulation the enzyme renin (angiotensinogenase), which cleaves angiotensinogen and results in the ten amino acid substance angiotensin-1 (A-1).
The juxtaglomerular apparatus (also known as the juxtaglomerular complex) is a structure in the kidney that regulates the function of each nephron, the functional units of the kidney.

Potassium

KK + potassium ion
Substances secreted include urea, creatinine, potassium, hydrogen, and uric acid.
In the kidneys, about 180 liters of plasma is filtered through the glomeruli and into the renal tubules per day.