Nephrotic syndrome

a serious kidney disorderGlomerulosclerosisidiopathic nephrotic syndromeNephroticNephrotic syndromesNephrotic-range
Nephrotic syndrome is a collection of symptoms due to kidney damage.wikipedia
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Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

focal segmental glomerular sclerosisFSGSFocal and segmental glomerular lesions
Causes include a number of kidney diseases such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, membranous nephropathy, and minimal change disease.
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a cause of nephrotic syndrome in children and adolescents, as well as a leading cause of kidney failure in adults.

Proteinuria

protein in the urineproteinIsolated proteinuria
This includes protein in the urine, low blood albumin levels, high blood lipids, and significant swelling.
Severe proteinurina can cause nephrotic syndrome in which there is worsening swelling of the body.

Hypoalbuminemia

hypoalbuminaemiaLow albuminlow blood albumin levels
This includes protein in the urine, low blood albumin levels, high blood lipids, and significant swelling.
Patients often present with hypoalbuminemia as a result of another disease process such as sepsis, cirrhosis in the liver, nephrotic syndrome in the kidneys, or protein-losing enteropathy in the gastrointestinal tract.

Minimal change disease

lipoid nephrosisMinimal change lesionminimal change nephropathy
Causes include a number of kidney diseases such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, membranous nephropathy, and minimal change disease.
Minimal change disease (also known as MCD, minimal change glomerulopathy, and nil disease, among others) is a disease affecting the kidneys which causes a nephrotic syndrome.

Kidney

kidneysrenalkidney disorder
Nephrotic syndrome is a collection of symptoms due to kidney damage.
Nephrology is the medical specialty which addresses diseases of kidney function: these include chronic kidney disease, nephritic and nephrotic syndromes, acute kidney injury, and pyelonephritis.

Renal biopsy

kidney biopsyComplications
Diagnosis is typically based on urine testing and sometimes a kidney biopsy.

Edema

dropsyoedemaswelling
This includes protein in the urine, low blood albumin levels, high blood lipids, and significant swelling.
A fall in osmotic pressure occurs in nephrotic syndrome and liver failure.

Pleural effusion

pleuraleffusionpleural effusions
Nephrotic syndrome, leading to the loss of large amounts of albumin in urine and resultant low albumin levels in the blood and reduced colloid osmotic pressure, is another less common cause of pleural effusion.

Lipiduria

Lipiduria (lipids in urine) can also occur, but is not essential for the diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome.
Lipiduria is most frequently observed in nephrotic syndrome where it is passed as lipoproteins along with other proteins.

Nephritic syndrome

Acute nephritic syndromechronic nephritisChronic nephritic syndrome
It differs from nephritic syndrome in that there are no red blood cells in the urine.
By contrast, nephrotic syndrome is characterized by only proteins moving into the urine.

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

spontaneously infected
It can also occur in patients with nephrotic syndrome.

Membranous glomerulonephritis

membranous nephropathymembranous nephritisglomerulonephritis, membranous
Causes include a number of kidney diseases such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, membranous nephropathy, and minimal change disease.
It is the second most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults, with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) recently becoming the most common.

Kidney failure

renal failurekidney problemsrenal impairment
Causes of chronic kidney failure include diabetes, high blood pressure, nephrotic syndrome, and polycystic kidney disease.

Hyponatremia

Hyponatraemialow blood sodiumlow blood sodium levels
Hyponatremia also occurs with a low fractional sodium excretion.

Hyperlipidemia

hyperlipoproteinemiahyperlipidaemiaPrimary hyperlipoproteinemia
This includes protein in the urine, low blood albumin levels, high blood lipids, and significant swelling.

Diabetic nephropathy

diabetic kidney diseasenephropathydiabetic nephropathies
Protein loss in the urine due to damage to the glomeruli may become massive, and cause a low serum albumin with resulting generalized body swelling (edema) and result in the nephrotic syndrome.

Amyloidosis

amyloid degenerationamyloidosesfamilial amyloidosis
Other causes are amyloidosis and certain other allergic and infectious diseases.
Amyloid deposition in the kidneys can cause nephrotic syndrome, which results from a reduction in the kidney's ability to filter and hold on to proteins.

Thrombophilia

hypercoagulabilityhypercoagulable statehypercoagulable
Nephrotic syndrome, in which protein from the bloodstream is released into the urine due to kidney diseases, can predispose to thrombosis; this is particularly the case in more severe cases (as indicated by blood levels of albumin below 25 g/l) and if the syndrome is caused by the condition membranous nephropathy.

Muehrcke's nails

Muehrcke's linesMuehrcke lines
The appearance of Muehrcke's lines is associated specifically with marked hypoalbuminemia (serum albumin ≤ 2.2 g/dL) indicating decreased protein synthesis, which may occur during periods of metabolic stress (e.g. systemic infection, trauma, AIDS, chemotherapy), or in hypoalbuminemic states such as the nephrotic syndrome or dietary protein deficiency.

Lupus nephritis

systemic lupus erythematosus
Hypertension, nephrotic syndrome, and acute kidney injury are very rare at this stage.

Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis

Rapidly progressing glomerulonephritiscrescentsglomerular crescent
Most types of RPGN are characterized by severe and rapid loss of kidney function featuring severe hematuria (blood in the urine), red blood cell casts in the urine, and proteinuria (protein in the urine), sometimes exceeding 3 g protein/24 h, a range associated with nephrotic syndrome.

Urinary cast

urinary castscastsRBC casts
It is also examined for urinary casts, which are more a feature of active nephritis.
In nephrotic syndrome many additional types of cast exist including broad and waxy casts if the condition is chronic (this is referred to as a telescopic urine with the presence of many casts).