Nervous system

neuralnervousneurogenicnervous systemshuman nervous systemneural systemneurologicalnervesnerveneurotropic
The nervous system is a highly complex part of an animal that coordinates its actions and sensory information by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.wikipedia
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Sense

sensesfive sensessensory
The nervous system is a highly complex part of an animal that coordinates its actions and sensory information by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
The nervous system has a specific sensory nervous system, and a sense organ, or sensor, dedicated to each sense.

Central nervous system

CNScentralcentral nervous system (CNS)
In vertebrates it consists of two main parts, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS).
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

Nervous tissue

neural tissuenerve tissueConnective tissue in the peripheral nervous system
Nervous tissue first arose in wormlike organisms about 550 to 600 million years ago.
Nervous tissue, also called neural tissue or nerve tissue, is the main tissue component of the nervous system.

Peripheral nervous system

peripheralperipheral nervesPNS
In vertebrates it consists of two main parts, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS).
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of two components that make up the nervous system of bilateral animals, with the other part being the central nervous system (CNS).

Brain

brain functionmammalian braincerebral
The CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord.
A brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.

Synapse

synapsessynapticpresynaptic
They send these signals in the form of electrochemical waves traveling along thin fibers called axons, which cause chemicals called neurotransmitters to be released at junctions called synapses.
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target effector cell.

Sponge

spongessea spongePorifera
The only multicellular animals that have no nervous system at all are sponges, placozoans, and mesozoans, which have very simple body plans.
Sponges do not have nervous, digestive or circulatory systems.

Axon

axonsnerve fiberaxonal
They send these signals in the form of electrochemical waves traveling along thin fibers called axons, which cause chemicals called neurotransmitters to be released at junctions called synapses. The PNS consists mainly of nerves, which are enclosed bundles of the long fibers or axons, that connect the CNS to every other part of the body.
Axons are the primary transmission lines of the nervous system, and as bundles they form nerves.

Neural pathway

neural pathwayspathwaypathways
The connections between neurons can form neural pathways, neural circuits, and larger networks that generate an organism's perception of the world and determine its behavior.
A neural pathway is the connection formed by axons that project from neurons to make synapses onto neurons in another location, to enable a signal to be sent from one region of the nervous system to another.

Autonomic nervous system

autonomicautonomous nervous systemautonomic functions
The PNS is divided into three separate subsystems, the somatic, autonomic, and enteric nervous systems.
Those are then subdivided into other areas and are also linked to ANS subsystems and nervous systems external to the brain.

Neuroscience

neurobiologyneuroscientistneurosciences
Neuroscience is the field of science that focuses on the study of the nervous system.
Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.

Neurology

neurologistneurologicalneurologists
The medical specialty of neurology studies disorders of the nervous system and looks for interventions that can prevent or treat them.
Neurological practice relies heavily on the field of neuroscience, the scientific study of the nervous system.

Behavior

behaviourbehavioralbehaviors
The nervous system is a highly complex part of an animal that coordinates its actions and sensory information by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
Human behavior is believed to be influenced by the endocrine system and the nervous system.

Human brain

brainbrain tissuebrains
In the human brain, it is estimated that the total number of glia roughly equals the number of neurons, although the proportions vary in different brain areas.
The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.

Nerve

nervesinnervationinnervated
The PNS consists mainly of nerves, which are enclosed bundles of the long fibers or axons, that connect the CNS to every other part of the body.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.

Ediacaran biota

Ediacara biotaEdiacaranEdiacaran fauna
Nervous tissue first arose in wormlike organisms about 550 to 600 million years ago.
He believed that they independently evolved a nervous system and brains, meaning that "the path toward intelligent life was embarked upon more than once on this planet".

Glia

glial cellsglial cellglial
Along with neurons, the nervous system contains other specialized cells called glial cells (or simply glia), which provide structural and metabolic support.
The term derives from Greek γλία and γλοία "glue" ( or ), and suggests the original impression that they were the glue of the nervous system.

Ctenophora

ctenophorecomb jelliesctenophores
The nervous systems of the radially symmetric organisms ctenophores (comb jellies) and cnidarians (which include anemones, hydras, corals and jellyfish) consist of a diffuse nerve net.
Unlike sponges, both ctenophores and cnidarians have: cells bound by inter-cell connections and carpet-like basement membranes; muscles; nervous systems; and some have sensory organs.

Ectoderm

ectodermalectodermal tissuesEmbryonic ectoderm
Unlike bilaterians, radiata only have two primordial cell layers, endoderm and ectoderm.
Generally speaking, the ectoderm differentiates to form the nervous system (spine, peripheral nerves and brain), tooth enamel and the epidermis (the outer part of integument).

Arthropod

ArthropodaarthropodsEuarthropoda
Protostomes, the more diverse group, include arthropods, molluscs, and numerous types of worms.
Their nervous system is "ladder-like", with paired ventral nerve cords running through all segments and forming paired ganglia in each segment.

Connectome

brain graphsConnectome Projectconnectomes
The nervous system of one very small roundworm, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, has been completely mapped out in a connectome including its synapses.
More broadly, a connectome would include the mapping of all neural connections within an organism's nervous system.

Mollusca

molluskmolluscmolluscs
Protostomes, the more diverse group, include arthropods, molluscs, and numerous types of worms.
The three most universal features defining modern molluscs are a mantle with a significant cavity used for breathing and excretion, the presence of a radula (except for bivalves), and the structure of the nervous system.

Henry Hallett Dale

Henry DaleSir Henry DaleSir Henry Hallett Dale
"It is difficult to believe that until approximately year 1900 it was not known that neurons are the basic units of the brain (Santiago Ramón y Cajal). Equally surprising is the fact that the concept of chemical transmission in the brain was not known until around 1930 (Henry Hallett Dale and Otto Loewi). We began to understand the basic electrical phenomenon that neurons use in order to communicate among themselves, the action potential, in the 1950s (Alan Lloyd Hodgkin, Andrew Huxley and John Eccles). It was in the 1960s that we became aware of how basic neuronal networks code stimuli and thus basic concepts are possible (David H. Hubel and Torsten Wiesel). The molecular revolution swept across US universities in the 1980s. It was in the 1990s that molecular mechanisms of behavioral phenomena became widely known (Eric Richard Kandel)."
Although Dale and his colleagues first identified acetylcholine in 1914 as a possible neurotransmitter, Loewi showed its importance in the nervous system.

Cnidaria

cnidariancnidarianscnidarian venoms
The nervous systems of the radially symmetric organisms ctenophores (comb jellies) and cnidarians (which include anemones, hydras, corals and jellyfish) consist of a diffuse nerve net.
Both cnidarians and ctenophores are more complex than sponges as they have: cells bound by inter-cell connections and carpet-like basement membranes; muscles; nervous systems; and some have sensory organs.

Endocrine system

endocrineendocrinologicalendocrine organ
The nervous system detects environmental changes that impact the body, then works in tandem with the endocrine system to respond to such events.
Purely neurocrine signaling between neurons, on the other hand, belongs completely to the nervous system.