Network socket

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Software structure within a network node of a computer network that serves as an endpoint for sending and receiving data across the network.

- Network socket

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File descriptor

File descriptors for a single process, file table and inode table. Note that multiple file descriptors can refer to the same file table entry (e.g., as a result of the dup system call) and that multiple file table entries can in turn refer to the same inode (if it has been opened multiple times; the table is still simplified because it represents inodes by file names, even though an inode can have multiple names). File descriptor 3 does not refer to anything in the file table, signifying that it has been closed.

In Unix and Unix-like computer operating systems, a file descriptor (FD, less frequently fildes) is a unique identifier (handle) for a file or other input/output resource, such as a pipe or network socket.

Port (computer networking)

Communication endpoint.

Network Packet

Today, network socket refers to a related but distinct concept, namely the internal address of an endpoint used only within the node.

Transport layer

Conceptual division of methods in the layered architecture of protocols in the network stack in the Internet protocol suite and the OSI model.

The transport layer in the Internet protocol stack.

Together with the source and destination IP address, the port numbers constitute a network socket, i.e. an identification address of the process-to-process communication.

Transmission Control Protocol

One of the main protocols of the Internet protocol suite.

A Simplified TCP State Diagram. See TCP EFSM diagram for a more detailed state diagram including the states inside the ESTABLISHED state.
Connection termination
TCP sequence numbers and receive windows behave very much like a clock. The receive window shifts each time the receiver receives and acknowledges a new segment of data. Once it runs out of sequence numbers, the sequence number loops back to 0.

At the transport layer, TCP handles all handshaking and transmission details and presents an abstraction of the network connection to the application typically through a network socket interface.

User Datagram Protocol

One of the core members of the Internet protocol suite.

Network Packet

Applications can use datagram sockets to establish host-to-host communications.

Berkeley sockets

Application programming interface for Internet sockets and Unix domain sockets, used for inter-process communication (IPC).

Flow diagram of client-server transaction using sockets with the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).

A socket is an abstract representation (handle) for the local endpoint of a network communication path.

Network address translation

Method of mapping an IP address space into another by modifying network address information in the IP header of packets while they are in transit across a traffic routing device.

Network address translation between a private network and the Internet
Network address mapping
In bidirectional NAT the session can be established both from inside and outside realms.
How dynamic NAT works.

The IP address/protocol/port number triple defines an association with a network socket.

Handle (computing)

Not to be confused with Handlers.

Ada Lovelace, whose notes added to the end of Luigi Menabrea's paper included the first algorithm designed for processing by an Analytical Engine. She is often recognized as history's first computer programmer.

Common resource handles include file descriptors, network sockets, database connections, process identifiers (PIDs), and job IDs.

Windows XP

Major release of Microsoft's Windows NT operating system.

Screenshot of Windows XP running the Luna visual style, showing the start menu, taskbar, and My Computer window
Screenshot of Windows XP running the Luna visual style, showing the start menu, taskbar, and My Computer window
Updated start menu in the Royale theme, now featuring two columns
Screenshot of Windows XP running the Luna visual style, showing the start menu, taskbar, and My Computer window
Diagram representing the main editions of Windows XP. It is based on the category of the edition (grey) and codebase (black arrow).
Windows Security Center window running Windows XP Service Pack 2, showing no virus protection installed
An electroencephalograph running on Windows XP. The medical industry's continued use of Windows XP is partly due to medical applications being incompatible with later versions of Windows.

Raw socket support is removed (which supposedly limits the damage done by zombie machines) and the Windows Messenger service (which had been abused to cause pop-up advertisements to be displayed as system messages without a web browser or any additional software) became disabled by default.

Virtual circuit

Means of transporting data over a packet-switched network in such a way that it appears as though there is a dedicated physical link between the source and destination end systems of this data.

An animation demonstrating datagram type of packet switching across a network

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), where a reliable virtual circuit is established on top of the underlying unreliable and connectionless IP protocol. The virtual circuit is identified by the source and destination network socket address pair, i.e. the sender and receiver IP address and port number. Guaranteed QoS is not provided.