Neural circuit

biological neural networkneural circuitsneuronal networkneural networksneural networkneuronal networksbiological neural networksneuronal circuitnetworknetworks
A neural circuit is a population of neurons interconnected by synapses to carry out a specific function when activated.wikipedia
291 Related Articles

Neuron

neuronsnerve cellsnerve cell
A neural circuit is a population of neurons interconnected by synapses to carry out a specific function when activated.
A group of connected neurons is called a neural circuit.

Artificial neural network

artificial neural networksneural networksneural network
Biological neural networks have inspired the design of artificial neural networks, but artificial neural networks are usually not strict copies of their biological counterparts.
Artificial neural networks (ANN) or connectionist systems are computing systems that are inspired by, but not identical to, biological neural networks that constitute animal brains.

Neural network

neural networksnetworksnetwork
Biological neural networks have inspired the design of artificial neural networks, but artificial neural networks are usually not strict copies of their biological counterparts.
Thus a neural network is either a biological neural network, made up of real biological neurons, or an artificial neural network, for solving artificial intelligence (AI) problems.

Neuroscience

neurobiologyneuroscientistneurosciences
In 1959, the neuroscientists, Warren Sturgis McCulloch and Walter Pitts published the first works on the processing of neural networks.
It is a multidisciplinary branch of biology that combines physiology, anatomy, molecular biology, developmental biology, cytology, mathematical modeling and psychology to understand the fundamental and emergent properties of neurons and neural circuits.

Chemical synapse

synaptic cleftpostsynapticpresynaptic neuron
The basic kinds of connections between neurons are synapses: both chemical and electrical synapses.
Chemical synapses allow neurons to form circuits within the central nervous system.

Biological neuron model

Biological neuron modelsindividual neuronsBiological neuron model § Synaptic transmission
Simplified models of biological neurons were set up, now usually called perceptrons or artificial neurons.
This situation is partly the result of the many different experimental settings, and the difficulty to separate the intrinsic properties of a single neuron from measurements effects and interactions of many cells (network effects).

Synaptic plasticity

plasticityneural plasticitychanges
On the electrophysiological level, there are various phenomena which alter the response characteristics of individual synapses (called synaptic plasticity) and individual neurons (intrinsic plasticity).
Since memories are postulated to be represented by vastly interconnected neural circuits in the brain, synaptic plasticity is one of the important neurochemical foundations of learning and memory (see Hebbian theory).

Neuroplasticity

plasticityneural plasticitybrain plasticity
Usually the term "neuroplasticity" refers to changes in the brain that are caused by activity or experience.
The adult brain is not entirely "hard-wired" with fixed neuronal circuits.

Papez circuit

Papez-MacleanPapez-Maclean theory
Another is the Papez circuit linking the hypothalamus to the limbic lobe.
The Papez circuit, or medial limbic circuit, is a neural circuit for the control of emotional expression.

Cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop

cortico-basal gangliacortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop (CBGTC)cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical
There are several neural circuits in the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop.
The cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop (CBGTC loop) is a system of neural circuits in the brain.

Trisynaptic circuit

trisynaptic loop
An example of a neural circuit is the trisynaptic circuit in the hippocampus.
The trisynaptic circuit is a neural circuit in the hippocampus, which is made up of three major cell groups: granule cells in the dentate gyrus, pyramidal neurons in CA3, and pyramidal neurons in CA1.

Central pattern generator

Central Pattern Generatorsmotor pattern generationpattern generator
Neural circuits in the spinal cord called central pattern generators are responsible for controlling motor instructions involved in rhythmic behaviours.

Spinal cord

medulla spinalisspinethoracic segment
Neural circuits in the spinal cord called central pattern generators are responsible for controlling motor instructions involved in rhythmic behaviours.
It is also the location of groups of spinal interneurons that make up the neural circuits known as central pattern generators.

Striatum

ventral striatumdorsal striatumcorpus striatum
The largest structure within the basal ganglia, the striatum, is seen as having its own internal microcircuitry.
The ventral striatum is associated with the limbic system and has been implicated as a vital part of the circuitry for decision making and reward-related behavior.

Hippocampus

hippocampalhippocampihippocampal formation
An example of a neural circuit is the trisynaptic circuit in the hippocampus.
Both parts are of similar composition but belong to different neural circuits.

Neural coding

sparse codingneural coderate coding
sensory and other information is represented in the brain by networks of neurons, it is thought that neurons can encode both digital and analog information.

Basal ganglia

basal nucleibasalbasal ganglia (BG)
These circuits carry information between the cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, and back to the cortex.
The two segments participate in distinct neural circuits.

Limbic lobe

limbicFornicate gyrus
Another is the Papez circuit linking the hypothalamus to the limbic lobe.
In 1937 Papez theorized that a neural circuit (the Papez circuit) including the hippocampal formation and the cingulate gyrus constitutes the neural substrate of emotional behavior, and Klüver and Bucy reported that, in monkeys, resection involving the hippocampal formation and the amygdaloid complex has a profound effect on emotional responses.

Neural oscillation

brain wavesbrainwavebrain wave
Apart from intrinsic properties of neurons, biological neural network properties are also an important source of oscillatory activity.

Synapse

synapsessynapticpresynaptic
A neural circuit is a population of neurons interconnected by synapses to carry out a specific function when activated. The basic kinds of connections between neurons are synapses: both chemical and electrical synapses.

Large scale brain networks

brain networkslarge scale brain networkbrain network
Neural circuits interconnect to one another to form large scale brain networks.

Biological network

networknetworksNetwork Biology
Early treatments of neural networks can be found in Herbert Spencer's Principles of Psychology, 3rd edition (1872), Theodor Meynert's Psychiatry (1884), William James' Principles of Psychology (1890), and Sigmund Freud's Project for a Scientific Psychology (composed 1895).

Herbert Spencer

SpencerSpencerianSpencer, Herbert
Early treatments of neural networks can be found in Herbert Spencer's Principles of Psychology, 3rd edition (1872), Theodor Meynert's Psychiatry (1884), William James' Principles of Psychology (1890), and Sigmund Freud's Project for a Scientific Psychology (composed 1895).

Theodor Meynert

MeynertTheodore Meynert
Early treatments of neural networks can be found in Herbert Spencer's Principles of Psychology, 3rd edition (1872), Theodor Meynert's Psychiatry (1884), William James' Principles of Psychology (1890), and Sigmund Freud's Project for a Scientific Psychology (composed 1895).

Psychiatry

psychiatricpsychiatristpsychiatrists
Early treatments of neural networks can be found in Herbert Spencer's Principles of Psychology, 3rd edition (1872), Theodor Meynert's Psychiatry (1884), William James' Principles of Psychology (1890), and Sigmund Freud's Project for a Scientific Psychology (composed 1895).