Neural engineering

Telemedicine system. Federal Center of Neurosurgery in Tyumen, 2013

Discipline within biomedical engineering that uses engineering techniques to understand, repair, replace, or enhance neural systems.

- Neural engineering
Telemedicine system. Federal Center of Neurosurgery in Tyumen, 2013

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Telemedicine system. Federal Center of Neurosurgery in Tyumen, 2013

Biomedical engineering

Application of engineering principles and design concepts to medicine and biology for healthcare purposes (e.g., diagnostic or therapeutic).

Application of engineering principles and design concepts to medicine and biology for healthcare purposes (e.g., diagnostic or therapeutic).

Telemedicine system. Federal Center of Neurosurgery in Tyumen, 2013
Hemodialysis, a process of purifying the blood of a person whose kidneys are not working normally.
Example of an approximately 40,000 probe spotted oligo microarray with enlarged inset to show detail.
A ribosome is a biological machine that utilizes protein dynamics
Micromass cultures of C3H-10T1/2 cells at varied oxygen tensions stained with Alcian blue.
Schematic of silicone membrane oxygenator
Biomedical instrumentation amplifier schematic used in monitoring low voltage biological signals, an example of a biomedical engineering application of electronic engineering to electrophysiology.
An MRI scan of a human head, an example of a biomedical engineering application of electrical engineering to diagnostic imaging. [[:Image:brain chrischan 300.gif|Click here]] to view an animated sequence of slices.
Artificial limbs: The right arm is an example of a prosthesis, and the left arm is an example of myoelectric control.
A prosthetic eye, an example of a biomedical engineering application of mechanical engineering and biocompatible materials to ophthalmology.
Ultrasound representation of urinary bladder (black butterfly-like shape) a hyperplastic prostate. An example of practical science and medical science working together.
Schematic representation of a normal ECG trace showing sinus rhythm; an example of widely used clinical medical equipment (operates by applying electronic engineering to electrophysiology and medical diagnosis).
Implants, such as artificial hip joints, are generally extensively regulated due to the invasive nature of such devices.

Neural engineering (also known as neuroengineering) is a discipline that uses engineering techniques to understand, repair, replace, or enhance neural systems.

Coat of arms

Columbia University

Private Ivy League research university in New York City.

Private Ivy League research university in New York City.

Coat of arms
Coat of arms
Samuel Johnson, the first president of Columbia
King's College Hall, 1790
Crop of 1797 Taylor map of NYC showing "The College" at its Park Place (then Robinson Street) location. Note earlier location, Trinity Church, lower left.
The Gothic Revival library and law school buildings on the Madison Avenue campus
Low Memorial Library, c. 1900
Alma Mater
College Walk
Butler Library
Union Theological Seminary
Lamont Campus entrance in Palisades, New York
The entrance to the College of Physicians and Surgeons in Washington Heights
Access to Columbia is enhanced by the 116th Street–Columbia University subway station on the IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line.
Van Amringe Quadrangle and Memorial
Low Memorial Library
The Barnard College Class of 1913 processes down the steps of Low Library.
Havemeyer Hall, a National Historic Chemical Landmark, where deuterium was discovered in 1931. Research conducted in Havemeyer has led to at least seven Nobel Prizes.
President Lee Bollinger presents the 2003 Pulitzer Prize for Fiction to Jeffrey Eugenides.
Copies of the Columbia Daily Spectator being sold during the 1962–63 New York City newspaper strike
The Art Deco cover of the November 1931 edition of the Jester, celebrating the opening of the George Washington Bridge
Pupin Hall, the physics building, showing the rooftop Rutherfurd Observatory
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World Leaders Forum at Low Memorial Library
Earl Hall was listed on the National Register of Historic Places for its role in serving as a venue for meetings and dances of the Columbia Queer Alliance.
The Columbia University Marching Band in 2018
Alexander Hamilton: Founding Father of the United States; author of The Federalist Papers; first United States Secretary of the Treasury — King's College
John Jay: Founding Father of the United States; author of The Federalist Papers; first Chief Justice of the United States; second Governor of New York — King's College
Robert R. Livingston: Founding Father of the United States; drafter of the Declaration of Independence; first United States Secretary of Foreign Affairs — King's College
Gouverneur Morris: Founding Father of the United States; author of the United States Constitution; United States Senator from New York — King's College
DeWitt Clinton: United States Senator from New York; sixth Governor of New York; responsible for construction of Erie Canal — Columbia College
Barack Obama: 44th President of the United States; United States Senator from Illinois; Nobel laureate — Columbia College
Franklin D. Roosevelt: 32nd President of the United States; 44th Governor of New York — Columbia Law School
Theodore Roosevelt: 26th President of the United States; 25th Vice President of the United States; 33rd Governor of New York; Nobel laureate – Columbia Law School
Wellington Koo: acting President of the Republic of China; judge of the International Court of Justice — Columbia College, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences
B. R. Ambedkar: Founding Father of India; architect of the Constitution of India; First Minister of Law and Justice — Graduate School of Arts and Sciences
Ruth Bader Ginsburg: Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States — Columbia Law School
Neil Gorsuch: Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States — Columbia College
Charles Evans Hughes: 11th Chief Justice of the United States; 44th United States Secretary of State; 35th Governor of New York — Columbia Law School
Harlan Fiske Stone: 12th Chief Justice of the United States; 52nd United States Attorney General — Columbia Law School
William Barr: 77th and 85th United States Attorney General – Columbia College, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences
Hamilton Fish: 26th United States Secretary of State; United States Senator from New York; 16th Governor of New York — Columbia College
Madeleine Albright: 64th United States Secretary of State; first female Secretary of State — School of International and Public Affairs
Frances Perkins: fourth United States Secretary of Labor; first female member of any U.S. Cabinet — Graduate School of Arts and Sciences
Robert A. Millikan: Nobel laureate; measured the elementary electric charge — Graduate School of Arts and Sciences
Isidor Isaac Rabi: Nobel Laureate; discovered nuclear magnetic resonance — Graduate School of Arts and Sciences
Julian S. Schwinger: Nobel laureate; pioneer of quantum field theory — Columbia College, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences
Milton Friedman: Nobel laureate, leading member of the Chicago school of economics — Graduate School of Arts and Sciences
Simon Kuznets: Nobel laureate; invented concept of GDP; Milton Friedman's doctoral advisor — School of General Studies, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences
Alan Greenspan: 13th Chair of the Federal Reserve — Graduate School of Arts and Sciences
Warren Buffett: CEO of Berkshire Hathaway; one of the world's wealthiest people — Columbia Business School
Herman Hollerith: inventor; co-founder of IBM – School of Engineering and Applied Sciences
Robert Kraft: billionaire; owner of the New England Patriots; chairman and CEO of the Kraft Group — Columbia College
Richard Rodgers: legendary Emmy, Grammy, Oscar, and Tony award-winning composer; Pulitzer Prize winner — Columbia College
Langston Hughes: Harlem Renaissance poet, novelist, and playwright — School of Engineering and Applied Science
Zora Neale Hurston: Harlem Renaissance author, anthropologist, and filmmaker — Barnard College, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences
Allen Ginsberg: poet; founder of the Beat Generation — Columbia College
Jack Kerouac: poet; founder of the Beat Generation — Columbia College
Isaac Asimov: science fiction writer; biochemist — School of General Studies, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences
J. D. Salinger: novelist, The Catcher in the Rye — School of General Studies
Amelia Earhart: first female aviator to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean — School of General Studies
Jake Gyllenhaal: actor and film producer — Columbia College
Zbigniew Brzezinski
Sonia Sotomayor
Kimberlé Crenshaw
Lee Bollinger
Franz Boas
Margaret Mead
Edward Sapir
John Dewey
Charles A. Beard
Max Horkheimer
Herbert Marcuse
Edward Said
Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak
Orhan Pamuk
Edwin Howard Armstrong
Enrico Fermi
Chien-Shiung Wu
Tsung-Dao Lee
Jack Steinberger
Joachim Frank
Joseph Stiglitz
Jeffrey Sachs
Robert Mundell
Thomas Hunt Morgan
Eric Kandel
Richard Axel
Andrei Okounkov

The first brain-computer interface capable of translating brain signals into speech was developed by neuroengineers at Columbia.

Drexel University

Private research university with its main campus in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Private research university with its main campus in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Statue of Anthony J. Drexel by Moses J. Ezekiel, 1904. Moved to the Drexel campus in 1966.
The Main Building, dedicated in 1891.
Monumental conical pendulum clock by Eugène Farcot, sculpture by Albert-Ernest Carrier-Belleuse. Donated in 1912 to the university. Main building, great court.
Drexel's Lebow College of Business
Edmund D. Bossone Research Center, located on Market Street 'Avenue of Technology'
Thomas R. Kline School of Law
Drexel University's School of Education offices are located on the third floor of the UCity Square building located at 3401 Market street.
The Queen Lane Campus
A complete Tyrannosaurus rex fossil on display with other dinosaur specimens at The Academy of Natural Sciences.
Beach Volleyball courts at Buckley Green
North Hall by architect Michael Graves
Drexel's Mascot: Mario the Magnificent
Drexel Dragons wordmark
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Alassane Ouattara, President of the Ivory Coast
Malik Rose, former NBA player
Chuck Barris, game show host
Jesse Willcox Smith, illustrator
Christopher Ferguson, retired NASA astronaut
The URBN Center, home of the Westphal College of Media Arts and Design
The W.W. Hagerty Library at the University City Main Campus
The Drexel Recreation Center
The Drexel University School of Law
Nesbitt Hall located on 33rd and Market Streets
Vidas Athletic Field
The Armory at Drexel University
Hess Engineering Research Laboratories (Now demolished)
John A. Daskalakis Athletic Center
Drexel University Center for Graduate Studies, Sacramento, California
A "living wall" inside the Papadakis Integrated Science Building
Drexel Main Building

Primary research areas within the school include bioinformatics, biomechanics, biomaterials, neuroengineering, and cardiovascular engineering.

The InSight lander with solar panels deployed in a cleanroom

Outline of engineering

Provided as an overview of and topical guide to engineering:

Provided as an overview of and topical guide to engineering:

The InSight lander with solar panels deployed in a cleanroom

Neural engineering

Human brain and skull

Human brain

Central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.

Central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.

Human brain and skull
Human brain (sagittal section)
MRI scan of a human individual's brain
Major gyri and sulci on the lateral surface of the cortex
Lobes of the brain
Cortical folds and white matter in horizontal bisection of head
Human brain viewed from below, showing cerebellum and brainstem
Cerebrospinal fluid circulates in spaces around and within the brain
Two circulations joining at the circle of Willis (inferior view).
Diagram showing features of cerebral outer membranes and supply of blood vessels
Neurulation and neural crest cells
Primary and secondary vesicle stages of development in the early embryo to the fifth week
Brain of a human embryo in the sixth week of development
Motor and sensory regions of the brain
Cortical areas
Routing of neural signals from the two eyes to the brain
Broca's area and Wernicke's area are linked by the arcuate fasciculus.
PET image of the human brain showing energy consumption
CT scan of a cerebral hemorrhage, showing an intraparenchymal bleed (bottom arrow) with surrounding edema (top arrow)
The skull of Phineas Gage, with the path of the iron rod that passed through it without killing him, but altering his cognition. The case helped to convince people that mental functions were localized in the brain.
Phrenology summarized in an 1883 chart
Hieroglyph for the word "brain" (c.1700 BC)
Drawing of the base of the brain, from Andreas Vesalius's 1543 work De humani corporis fabrica
One of Leonardo da Vinci's sketches of the human skull
Drawing by Camillo Golgi of vertical section of rabbit hippocampus, from his "Sulla fina anatomia degli organi centrali del sistema nervoso", 1885
Drawing of cells in chick cerebellum by Santiago Ramón y Cajal, from "Estructura de los centros nerviosos de las aves", Madrid, 1905

Clinical observations, including a total lack of responsiveness, a known diagnosis, and neural imaging evidence, may all play a role in the decision to pronounce brain death.

Prospect Theory model originally from Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky demonstrating how loses are felt more than gains.

Neuroeconomics

Interdisciplinary field that seeks to explain human decision making, the ability to process multiple alternatives and to follow through on a plan of action.

Interdisciplinary field that seeks to explain human decision making, the ability to process multiple alternatives and to follow through on a plan of action.

Prospect Theory model originally from Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky demonstrating how loses are felt more than gains.
Vernon L. Smith
Ernst Fehr
George Loewenstein
David Laibson

This idea is supported by neural imaging studies demonstrating a high degree of activation in the ventral striatum when individuals cooperate with another person but that this is not the case when people play the same prisoner's dilemma against a computer.

Steve Furber in 2009

Steve Furber

British computer scientist, mathematician and hardware engineer, currently the ICL Professor of Computer Engineering in the Department of Computer Science at the University of Manchester, UK.

British computer scientist, mathematician and hardware engineer, currently the ICL Professor of Computer Engineering in the Department of Computer Science at the University of Manchester, UK.

Steve Furber in 2009
Furber playing bass guitar.

In 1990, he moved to Manchester to lead research into asynchronous systems, low-power electronics and neural engineering, where the Spiking Neural Network Architecture (SpiNNaker) project is delivering a computer incorporating a million ARM processors optimised for computational neuroscience.

Peter Norvig in 2019

Peter Norvig

American computer scientist and Distinguished Education Fellow at the Stanford Institute for Human-Centered AI.

American computer scientist and Distinguished Education Fellow at the Stanford Institute for Human-Centered AI.

Peter Norvig in 2019

He was head of the Computational Sciences Division (now the Intelligent Systems Division) at NASA Ames Research Center, where he oversaw a staff of 200 scientists performing NASA's research and development in autonomy and robotics, automated software engineering and data analysis, neuroengineering, collaborative systems research, and simulation-based decision-making.

Montclair High School (New Jersey)

Comprehensive four-year public high school located in Montclair, in Essex County, New Jersey, United States, serving students in ninth through twelfth grades as the lone secondary school of the Montclair Public School District.

Comprehensive four-year public high school located in Montclair, in Essex County, New Jersey, United States, serving students in ninth through twelfth grades as the lone secondary school of the Montclair Public School District.

The George Inness Annex ("Freshman Building")
The front façade of the Main building with the old marquee. The marquee was recently replaced with an electronic signboard.
Buzz Aldrin
Yael Averbuch

Jordan Harrod (born 1996, class of 2014), research scientist and YouTuber who works on neuroengineering, brain-machine interfaces, and machine learning for medicine.

Collage of images representing different academic disciplines

Outline of academic disciplines

Branch of knowledge, taught and researched as part of higher education.

Branch of knowledge, taught and researched as part of higher education.

Collage of images representing different academic disciplines

Neural engineering