Neural oscillation

brain wavesbrainwavebrain waveneural oscillationsneurodynamicsbrainwavesInduced activityoscillationsneuronal oscillationsNeural synchronization
Neural oscillations, or brainwaves, are rhythmic or repetitive patterns of neural activity in the central nervous system.wikipedia
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Neural binding

feature bindingbindBinding-by-Synchrony
The possible roles of neural oscillations include feature binding, information transfer mechanisms and the generation of rhythmic motor output.
The neural binding hypothesis states that neural signals are paired through synchronized oscillations of neuronal activity that combine and recombine to allow for a wide variety of responses to context-dependent stimuli.

Alpha wave

alpha wavesalphaalpha rhythm
A well-known example of macroscopic neural oscillations is alpha activity.
Alpha waves are neural oscillations in the frequency range of 8–12 Hz arising from the synchronous and coherent (in phase or constructive) electrical activity of thalamic pacemaker cells in humans.

Delta wave

deltadelta wavesDelta brainwave
Other frequency bands are: delta (1–4 Hz), theta (4–8 Hz), beta (13–30 Hz), low gamma (30–70 Hz), and high gamma (70–150 Hz) frequency bands, where faster rhythms such as gamma activity have been linked to cognitive processing.
A delta wave is a high amplitude brain wave with a frequency of oscillation between 0.5 and 4 hertz.

Beta wave

betabeta rhythmbeta band
Other frequency bands are: delta (1–4 Hz), theta (4–8 Hz), beta (13–30 Hz), low gamma (30–70 Hz), and high gamma (70–150 Hz) frequency bands, where faster rhythms such as gamma activity have been linked to cognitive processing.
Beta wave, or beta rhythm, is a neural oscillation (brainwave) in the brain with a frequency range of between 12.5 and 30 Hz (12.5 to 30 cycles per second).

Gamma wave

gammagamma oscillationsgamma waves
Other frequency bands are: delta (1–4 Hz), theta (4–8 Hz), beta (13–30 Hz), low gamma (30–70 Hz), and high gamma (70–150 Hz) frequency bands, where faster rhythms such as gamma activity have been linked to cognitive processing.
A gamma wave is a pattern of neural oscillation in humans with a frequency between 25 and 100 Hz, though 40 Hz is typical.

Computational neuroscience

computational neuroscientistMathematical neurosciencetheoretical neuroscience
When studied in a more physiologically realistic setting, oscillatory activity is generally studied using computer simulations of a computational model.
Models in theoretical neuroscience are often aimed at capturing the essential features of the biological system at multiple spatial-temporal scales, from membrane currents, and chemical coupling via network oscillations, columnar and topographic architecture, all the way up to behavior.

Tremor

tremblingshakingmuscle tremor
Neural oscillations also play an important role in many neurological disorders, such as excessive synchronization during seizure activity in epilepsy or tremor in patients with Parkinson's disease.
A tremor is an involuntary, somewhat rhythmic, muscle contraction and relaxation involving oscillations or twitching movements of one or more body parts.

Bursting

burstsburstburst firing
Bursting is another form of rhythmic spiking.
The study of bursting both directly and in how it takes part in other neural phenomena has been very popular since the beginnings of cellular neuroscience and is closely tied to the fields of neural synchronization, neural coding, plasticity, and attention.

Subthreshold membrane potential oscillations

sub-threshold oscillation
Oscillatory activity can also be observed in the form of subthreshold membrane potential oscillations (i.e. in the absence of action potentials).
Neurons display, beyond synaptic and action potentials, rhythmic subthreshold membrane potential oscillations (a particular type of neural oscillations).

Action potential

action potentialsnerve impulsenerve impulses
In individual neurons, oscillations can appear either as oscillations in membrane potential or as rhythmic patterns of action potentials, which then produce oscillatory activation of post-synaptic neurons. Neural oscillations are observed throughout the central nervous system at all levels, and include spike trains, local field potentials and large-scale oscillations which can be measured by electroencephalography (EEG).
Although such pacemaker potentials have a natural rhythm, it can be adjusted by external stimuli; for instance, heart rate can be altered by pharmaceuticals as well as signals from the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves.

Recurrent thalamo-cortical resonance

thalamocortical circuitsthalamocortical resonance
This thalamocortical network is able to generate oscillatory activity known as recurrent thalamo-cortical resonance.
Recurrent thalamo-cortical resonance is an observed phenomenon of oscillatory neural activity between the thalamus and various cortical regions of the brain.

Neuronal ensemble

neural ensembleneural populationobject-encoding neuronal ensemble
At the level of neural ensembles, synchronized activity of large numbers of neurons can give rise to macroscopic oscillations, which can be observed in an electroencephalogram.
Neuronal oscillations that synchronize activity of the neurons in an ensemble appear to be an important encoding mechanism.

Magnetoencephalography

MEGmagnetoencephalogrammagnetoencephalography (MEG)
These large-scale oscillations can also be measured outside the scalp using electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG).
Synchronized neuronal currents induce weak magnetic fields.

Oscillation

oscillatorvibrationoscillators
Neural tissue can generate oscillatory activity in many ways, driven either by mechanisms within individual neurons or by interactions between neurons. Neural oscillations are observed throughout the central nervous system at all levels, and include spike trains, local field potentials and large-scale oscillations which can be measured by electroencephalography (EEG).

Interneuron

interneuronsassociation neuronsinhibitory interneurons
In particular, inhibitory interneurons play an important role in producing neural ensemble synchrony by generating a narrow window for effective excitation and rhythmically modulating the firing rate of excitatory neurons.
They have been found to function in reflexes, neuronal oscillations, and neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain.

Central pattern generator

Central Pattern Generatorsmotor pattern generationpattern generator
The possible roles of neural oscillations include feature binding, information transfer mechanisms and the generation of rhythmic motor output.
CPGs can play roles in movement, breathing, rhythm generation and other oscillatory functions.

Synchronization

synchronoussynchronizedsynchronize
If numerous neurons spike in synchrony, they can give rise to oscillations in local field potentials.

Consciousness

consciousconsciouslyhuman consciousness
Consequently, neural oscillations have been linked to cognitive states, such as awareness and consciousness.
Another idea that has drawn attention for several decades is that consciousness is associated with high-frequency (gamma band) oscillations in brain activity.

Cerebral cortex

cortexcorticalsubcortical
An example of such a feedback loop is the connections between the thalamus and cortex – the thalamocortical radiations.
Information processing within each layer is determined by different temporal dynamics with that in layers II/III having a slow 2 Hz oscillation while that in layer V has a fast 10–15 Hz oscillation.

Neuron

neuronsnerve cellsnerve cell
Neural tissue can generate oscillatory activity in many ways, driven either by mechanisms within individual neurons or by interactions between neurons.
Neurons have intrinsic electroresponsive properties like intrinsic transmembrane voltage oscillatory patterns.

Electroencephalography

EEGelectroencephalogramelectroencephalograph
At the level of neural ensembles, synchronized activity of large numbers of neurons can give rise to macroscopic oscillations, which can be observed in an electroencephalogram. These large-scale oscillations can also be measured outside the scalp using electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). Neural oscillations are observed throughout the central nervous system at all levels, and include spike trains, local field potentials and large-scale oscillations which can be measured by electroencephalography (EEG).
The latter analyses the type of neural oscillations (popularly called "brain waves") that can be observed in EEG signals in the frequency domain.

Local field potential

local field potentialsExtracellular field potentialfield potentials
If numerous neurons spike in synchrony, they can give rise to oscillations in local field potentials. Neural oscillations are observed throughout the central nervous system at all levels, and include spike trains, local field potentials and large-scale oscillations which can be measured by electroencephalography (EEG).
The local field potential is believed to represent the synchronised input into the observed area, as opposed to the spike data, which represents the output from the area.

Evoked potential

evoked potentialsauditory evoked potentialVisual evoked potential
Before Hans Berger, Vladimir Vladimirovich Pravdich-Neminsky published the first animal EEG and the evoked potential of a dog.

Default mode network

default networkDefault modedefault mode system
In case of fMRI, spontaneous fluctuations in the blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal reveal correlation patterns that are linked to resting states networks, such as the default network.
Around the same time, intrinsic oscillatory behavior in vertebrate neurons was observed in cerebellar Purkinje cells, inferior olivary nucleus and thalamus.

Kuramoto model

The Kuramoto model of coupled phase oscillators is one of the most abstract and fundamental models used to investigate neural oscillations and synchronization.
Its formulation was motivated by the behavior of systems of chemical and biological oscillators, and it has found widespread applications such as in neuroscience and oscillating flame dynamics.