Neuroblastoma

Neuroepitheliomaa rare form of cancerCNS Neuroblastomaneuroblastoma cancerneuroblastoma cellsneuroblastomas
Neuroblastoma (NB) is a type of cancer that forms in certain types of nerve tissue.wikipedia
359 Related Articles

Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome

opsoclonus-myoclonusKinsbourne syndromeOpsoclonus Myoclonus Ataxia
Rare but characteristic presentations include transverse myelopathy (tumor spinal cord compression, 5% of cases), treatment-resistant diarrhea (tumor vasoactive intestinal peptide secretion, 4% of cases), Horner's syndrome (cervical tumor, 2.4% of cases), opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome and ataxia (suspected paraneoplastic cause, 1.3% of cases), and hypertension (catecholamine secretion or kidney artery compression, 1.3% of cases).
It affects 2 to 3% of children with neuroblastoma and has been reported to occur with celiac disease and diseases of neurologic and autonomic dysfunction.

Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome

Beckwith-Wiedemann syndromeBeckwith Wiedemann syndromeBeckwith-Wiedemann
Neuroblastoma is also a feature of neurofibromatosis type 1 and the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.

1q21.1 deletion syndrome

1q211q21.1
Neuroblastoma has been linked to copy-number variation within the NBPF10 gene, which results in the 1q21.1 deletion syndrome or 1q21.1 duplication syndrome.

Nervous tissue

neural tissuenerve tissueConnective tissue in the peripheral nervous system
Neuroblastoma (NB) is a type of cancer that forms in certain types of nerve tissue.

Radiation therapy

radiotherapyradiation oncologyradiation
Treatments may include observation, surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, or stem cell transplantation. However, long-term survival for children with advanced disease older than 18 months of age is poor despite aggressive multimodal therapy (intensive chemotherapy, surgery, radiation therapy, stem cell transplant, differentiation agent isotretinoin also called 13-cis-retinoic acid, and frequently immunotherapy with anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody therapy).
Examples are the infusion of metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) to treat neuroblastoma, of oral iodine-131 to treat thyroid cancer or thyrotoxicosis, and of hormone-bound lutetium-177 and yttrium-90 to treat neuroendocrine tumors (peptide receptor radionuclide therapy).

Brain tumor

brain cancerbrain tumourbrain tumors
Neuroblastoma is the most common cancer in babies and the third-most common cancer in children after leukemia and brain cancer.
Anaplastic astrocytoma, Astrocytoma, Central neurocytoma, Choroid plexus carcinoma, Choroid plexus papilloma, Choroid plexus tumor, Colloid cyst, Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour, Ependymal tumor, Fibrillary astrocytoma, Giant-cell glioblastoma, Glioblastoma multiforme, Gliomatosis cerebri, Gliosarcoma, Hemangiopericytoma, Medulloblastoma, Medulloepithelioma, Meningeal carcinomatosis, Neuroblastoma, Neurocytoma, Oligoastrocytoma, Oligodendroglioma, Optic nerve sheath meningioma, Pediatric ependymoma, Pilocytic astrocytoma, Pinealoblastoma, Pineocytoma, Pleomorphic anaplastic neuroblastoma, Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, Primary central nervous system lymphoma, Sphenoid wing meningioma, Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, Subependymoma, Trilateral retinoblastoma.

Iobenguane

metaiodobenzylguanidineMIBGmeta-iodobenzylguanidine
Another way to detect neuroblastoma is the meta-iodobenzylguanidine scan, which is taken up by 90 to 95% of all neuroblastomas, often termed "mIBG-avid".
It localizes to adrenergic tissue and thus can be used to identify the location of tumors such as pheochromocytomas and neuroblastomas.

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase

ALKALK geneALK ''(Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase)
Familial neuroblastoma in some cases is caused by rare germline mutations in the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene.
In agreement with this observation, many in vitro functional studies demonstrated that ALK activation promotes neuronal differentiation of PC12 or neuroblastoma cell lines.

Paraneoplastic syndrome

paraneoplasticparaneoplastic syndromesparaneoplastic disease
Rare but characteristic presentations include transverse myelopathy (tumor spinal cord compression, 5% of cases), treatment-resistant diarrhea (tumor vasoactive intestinal peptide secretion, 4% of cases), Horner's syndrome (cervical tumor, 2.4% of cases), opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome and ataxia (suspected paraneoplastic cause, 1.3% of cases), and hypertension (catecholamine secretion or kidney artery compression, 1.3% of cases).

PHOX2B

Germline mutations in the PHOX2B or KIF1B gene have been implicated in familial neuroblastoma, as well.
PHOX2B immunohistochemical staining, as a marker of neural crest derivation, has been shown to be sensitive and specific for undifferentiated neuroblastoma, enabling identification where other markers fail to recognize neuroblastoma among various different small round blue cell tumors of childhood.

Isotretinoin

Accutane13-cis retinoic acidRoaccutane
However, long-term survival for children with advanced disease older than 18 months of age is poor despite aggressive multimodal therapy (intensive chemotherapy, surgery, radiation therapy, stem cell transplant, differentiation agent isotretinoin also called 13-cis-retinoic acid, and frequently immunotherapy with anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody therapy).
It is also used for treatment of neuroblastoma, a form of nerve cancer.

Cyclophosphamide

(C)'''yclophosphamidealdophosphamideCytoxan
Agents commonly used in induction and for stem cell transplant conditioning are platinum compounds (cisplatin, carboplatin), alkylating agents (cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, melphalan), topoisomerase II inhibitor (etoposide), anthracycline antibiotics (doxorubicin) and vinca alkaloids (vincristine).
As chemotherapy it is used to treat lymphoma, multiple myeloma, leukemia, ovarian cancer, breast cancer, small cell lung cancer, neuroblastoma, and sarcoma.

Cisplatin

Platinolcis''-PtCl 2 (NH 3 ) 2 cis-platinum
Agents commonly used in induction and for stem cell transplant conditioning are platinum compounds (cisplatin, carboplatin), alkylating agents (cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, melphalan), topoisomerase II inhibitor (etoposide), anthracycline antibiotics (doxorubicin) and vinca alkaloids (vincristine).
These include testicular cancer, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, breast cancer, bladder cancer, head and neck cancer, esophageal cancer, lung cancer, mesothelioma, brain tumors and neuroblastoma.

Carboplatin

carboplatinumParaplatin(C)'''arboplatin
Agents commonly used in induction and for stem cell transplant conditioning are platinum compounds (cisplatin, carboplatin), alkylating agents (cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, melphalan), topoisomerase II inhibitor (etoposide), anthracycline antibiotics (doxorubicin) and vinca alkaloids (vincristine).
This includes ovarian cancer, lung cancer, head and neck cancer, brain cancer, and neuroblastoma.

Horner's syndrome

Horner syndromeCongenital Horner's syndromeHorner’s syndrome
Rare but characteristic presentations include transverse myelopathy (tumor spinal cord compression, 5% of cases), treatment-resistant diarrhea (tumor vasoactive intestinal peptide secretion, 4% of cases), Horner's syndrome (cervical tumor, 2.4% of cases), opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome and ataxia (suspected paraneoplastic cause, 1.3% of cases), and hypertension (catecholamine secretion or kidney artery compression, 1.3% of cases).
The most common causes in young children are birth trauma and a type of cancer called neuroblastoma.

Etoposide

(E)'''toposideE'''toposideEtopophos
Agents commonly used in induction and for stem cell transplant conditioning are platinum compounds (cisplatin, carboplatin), alkylating agents (cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, melphalan), topoisomerase II inhibitor (etoposide), anthracycline antibiotics (doxorubicin) and vinca alkaloids (vincristine).
This includes testicular cancer, lung cancer, lymphoma, leukemia, neuroblastoma, and ovarian cancer.

GD2

ganglioside GD2GD2 ganglioside
However, long-term survival for children with advanced disease older than 18 months of age is poor despite aggressive multimodal therapy (intensive chemotherapy, surgery, radiation therapy, stem cell transplant, differentiation agent isotretinoin also called 13-cis-retinoic acid, and frequently immunotherapy with anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody therapy).
GD2 is a disialoganglioside expressed on tumors of neuroectodermal origin, including human neuroblastoma and melanoma, with highly restricted expression on normal tissues, principally to the cerebellum and peripheral nerves in humans.

Vincristine

Oncovin(O)'''ncovinVincristine sulfate
Agents commonly used in induction and for stem cell transplant conditioning are platinum compounds (cisplatin, carboplatin), alkylating agents (cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, melphalan), topoisomerase II inhibitor (etoposide), anthracycline antibiotics (doxorubicin) and vinca alkaloids (vincristine).
This includes acute lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, neuroblastoma, and small cell lung cancer among others.

Homovanillic acid

HVAhomovanillic acid (HVA)
Catecholamines and their metabolites include dopamine, homovanillic acid (HVA), and/or vanillylmandelic acid (VMA).
HVA presence supports a diagnosis of neuroblastoma and malignant pheochromocytoma.

Ganglioneuroblastoma

Neuroblastoma is one of the peripheral neuroblastic tumors (pNTs) that have similar origins and show a wide pattern of differentiation ranging from benign ganglioneuroma to stroma-rich ganglioneuroblastoma with neuroblastic cells intermixed or in nodules, to highly malignant neuroblastoma.
Ganglioneuroblastoma is a variant of neuroblastoma that is surrounded by ganglion cells.

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

bone marrow transplantbone marrow transplantationstem cell transplant
Treatments may include observation, surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, or stem cell transplantation. However, long-term survival for children with advanced disease older than 18 months of age is poor despite aggressive multimodal therapy (intensive chemotherapy, surgery, radiation therapy, stem cell transplant, differentiation agent isotretinoin also called 13-cis-retinoic acid, and frequently immunotherapy with anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody therapy).
Other conditions treated with stem cell transplants include sickle-cell disease, myelodysplastic syndrome, neuroblastoma, lymphoma, Ewing's sarcoma, desmoplastic small round cell tumor, chronic granulomatous disease, Hodgkin's disease and Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome.

N-Myc

MYCNneuroblastoma-derived V-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral-related oncogeneNMYC
MYCN oncogene amplification within the tumor is a common finding in neuroblastoma.
Excess N-Myc is associated with a variety of tumors, most notably neuroblastomas where patients with amplification of the N-Myc gene tend to have poor outcomes.

Topotecan

Hycamtin
Some newer regimens include topoisomerase I inhibitors (topotecan and irinotecan) in induction which have been found to be effective against recurrent disease.
As of 2016 experiments were under way for Neuroblastoma, Brainstem glioma, Ewing's sarcoma and Angelman's syndrome.

Iodine-131

131 II-131radioiodine therapy
When it is radio-iodinated with I-131 or I-123 (radioactive iodine isotopes), it is a very good radiopharmaceutical for diagnosis and monitoring of response to treatment for this disease.
The 131 I isotope is also used as a radioactive label for certain radiopharmaceuticals that can be used for therapy, e.g. 131 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine ( 131 I-MIBG) for imaging and treating pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma.

Monoclonal antibody therapy

therapeutic antibodiestherapeutic monoclonal antibodiesantibody therapy
However, long-term survival for children with advanced disease older than 18 months of age is poor despite aggressive multimodal therapy (intensive chemotherapy, surgery, radiation therapy, stem cell transplant, differentiation agent isotretinoin also called 13-cis-retinoic acid, and frequently immunotherapy with anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody therapy).