Neurofibrillary tangle

neurofibrillary tanglestanglestangle diseasesTau plaque
Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau protein that are most commonly known as a primary marker of Alzheimer's disease.wikipedia
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Alzheimer's disease

AlzheimerAlzheimer’s diseaseAlzheimer disease
Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau protein that are most commonly known as a primary marker of Alzheimer's disease.
The disease process is associated with plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain.

Ubiquitin

ubiquitinationubiquitylationubiquitinated
Three different maturation states of NFT have been defined using anti-tau and anti-ubiquitin immunostaining.

Tau protein

tauMAPTtau proteins
Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau protein that are most commonly known as a primary marker of Alzheimer's disease. Neurofibrillary tangles are formed by hyperphosphorylation of a microtubule-associated protein known as tau, causing it to aggregate, or group, in an insoluble form.
Toxicity could also happen by neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), which leads to cell death and cognitive decline.

Primary age-related tauopathy

It is currently unclear as to whether or not primary age-related tauopathy (PART), a term which includes some cases formerly referred to as neurofibrillary tangle-predominant dementia (NFTPD) or tangle-only dementia, is a variant of the traditional Alzheimer's disease, or a distinct entity.
Primary age-related tauopathy (PART) is a recently described neuropathological designation used to describe the neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) that are commonly observed in the brains of normally aged individuals that can occur independently of the amyloid plaques of Alzheimer's disease (AD).

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy

dementia pugilisticaCTEPunchdrunk
For example, the neurodegenerative disease chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), previously called dementia pugilistica, is highly associated with NFTs and neuropil threads.
The tau deposition occurs as dense neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), neurites, and glial tangles, which are made up of astrocytes and other glial cells Beta-amyloid deposition is a relatively uncommon feature of CTE.

Senile plaques

plaquessenile plaqueplaque
This should not be confused with the degree of senile plaque involvement, which progresses differently.
However, large numbers of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are characteristic features of Alzheimer's disease.

Braak staging

BraakBraak and Braak stagesBraak stages
The degree of NFT involvement in AD is defined by Braak staging.
Braak stages I and II are used when neurofibrillary tangle involvement is confined mainly to the transentorhinal region of the brain, stages III and IV when there is also involvement of limbic regions such as the hippocampus, and V and VI when there is extensive neocortical involvement.

Progressive supranuclear palsy

supranuclear palsysupranuclear palsy, progressiveProgressive Supranuclear Ophthalmoplegia
The neurons display neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), which are clumps of tau protein, a normal part of a brain cell's internal structural skeleton.

Lytico-bodig disease

lytico-bodigALS/PDCGuam disease
During autopsies, neurofibrillary tangles are found in the brain which are congruent to the brain of an Alzheimer's patient.

Proteopathy

protein misfoldingproteinopathiesproteotoxicity
* Proteopathy

Phosphorylation

phosphorylatedphosphorylatephosphorylates
Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau protein that are most commonly known as a primary marker of Alzheimer's disease. Neurofibrillary tangles are formed by hyperphosphorylation of a microtubule-associated protein known as tau, causing it to aggregate, or group, in an insoluble form.

Biomarker

biomarkersmarkerbiological marker
Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau protein that are most commonly known as a primary marker of Alzheimer's disease.

Protein

proteinsproteinaceousstructural proteins
Neurofibrillary tangles are formed by hyperphosphorylation of a microtubule-associated protein known as tau, causing it to aggregate, or group, in an insoluble form.

Tauopathy

tauopathiesAlzheimer's brain tau tanglesargyrophilic grain disease
Their presence is also found in numerous other diseases known as tauopathies.

Immunostaining

immunostainantibody stainingimmuno-electron microscopy
Three different maturation states of NFT have been defined using anti-tau and anti-ubiquitin immunostaining.

Pyramidal cell

pyramidal cellspyramidal neuronpyramidal neurons
At stage 0 there are morphologically normal pyramidal cells showing diffuse or fine granular cytoplasmic staining with anti-tau.

Cytoplasm

cytoplasmiccytosolicintracytoplasmic
At stage 0 there are morphologically normal pyramidal cells showing diffuse or fine granular cytoplasmic staining with anti-tau.

Inclusion bodies

inclusion bodyinclusionselementary bodies
In other words, cells are healthy with minimal tau presence; at stage 1 some delicate elongate inclusions are stained by tau antibodies (these are early tangles); stage 2 is represented by the classic NFT demonstration with anti-tau staining; stage 3 is exemplified by ghost tangles (tangles outside of cells where the host neuron has died), which are characterized by a reduced anti-tau but marked anti-ubiquitin immunostaining.

Antibody

antibodiesimmunoglobulinimmunoglobulins
In other words, cells are healthy with minimal tau presence; at stage 1 some delicate elongate inclusions are stained by tau antibodies (these are early tangles); stage 2 is represented by the classic NFT demonstration with anti-tau staining; stage 3 is exemplified by ghost tangles (tangles outside of cells where the host neuron has died), which are characterized by a reduced anti-tau but marked anti-ubiquitin immunostaining.

Neuron

neuronsnerve cellsnerve cell
In other words, cells are healthy with minimal tau presence; at stage 1 some delicate elongate inclusions are stained by tau antibodies (these are early tangles); stage 2 is represented by the classic NFT demonstration with anti-tau staining; stage 3 is exemplified by ghost tangles (tangles outside of cells where the host neuron has died), which are characterized by a reduced anti-tau but marked anti-ubiquitin immunostaining.

Microtubule

microtubulesmicrotubularmicrotubular-based
Neurofibrillary tangles are formed by hyperphosphorylation of a microtubule-associated protein known as tau, causing it to aggregate, or group, in an insoluble form.

Amino acid

amino acidsresiduesresidue
More explicitly, intracellular lesions known as pretangles develop when tau is phosphorylated excessively and on improper amino acid residues.

Protein filament

filamentfilamentsfilamentous
These lesions, over time, develop into filamentous neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) which interfere with numerous intracellular functions.

Gene

genesnumber of genesgene sequence
Seeking a reliable animal model for tau-related pathologies, researchers expressed the human mutant P301L tau gene in adult mice.

Dementia

senilesenilitysenile dementia
The human mutant P301 tau gene is associated with frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism, another tauopathy associated with NFTs.