A person with progressive dementia, ataxia, and incontinence. A clinical diagnosis of normal-pressure hydrocephalus was entertained. Imaging did not support this, however, and on formal testing, abnormal nystagmus and eye movements were detected. A sagittal view of the CT/MRI scan shows atrophy of the midbrain, with preservation of the volume of the pons. This appearance has been called the "hummingbird sign" or "penguin sign". Also, atrophy of the tectum is seen, particularly the superior colliculi. These findings suggest the diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy.
Microscopy of a cell with neurofibrillary tangles (marked by arrows).
Diagram of how microtubules disintegrate with Alzheimer's disease
Overview of RNA interference.

The neurons display neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), which are clumps of tau protein, a normal part of a brain cell's internal structural skeleton.

- Progressive supranuclear palsy

Progressive supranuclear palsy although with straight filament rather than PHF tau

- Neurofibrillary tangle
A person with progressive dementia, ataxia, and incontinence. A clinical diagnosis of normal-pressure hydrocephalus was entertained. Imaging did not support this, however, and on formal testing, abnormal nystagmus and eye movements were detected. A sagittal view of the CT/MRI scan shows atrophy of the midbrain, with preservation of the volume of the pons. This appearance has been called the "hummingbird sign" or "penguin sign". Also, atrophy of the tectum is seen, particularly the superior colliculi. These findings suggest the diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy.

2 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Image of a man diagnosed with dementia in the 1800s

Dementia

0 links

Disorder which manifests as a set of related symptoms, which usually surfaces when the brain is damaged by injury or disease.

Disorder which manifests as a set of related symptoms, which usually surfaces when the brain is damaged by injury or disease.

Image of a man diagnosed with dementia in the 1800s
Image of a man diagnosed with dementia in the 1800s
A drawing of a woman diagnosed with dementia
A drawing of an old man diagnosed with senile dementia
Brain atrophy in severe Alzheimer's
Donepezil
Deaths per million persons in 2012 due to dementia
Disability-adjusted life year for Alzheimer and other dementias per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004.
Woman with dementia being cared for at home in Ethiopia

Two FTD-related disorders are progressive supranuclear palsy (also classed as a Parkinson-plus syndrome), and corticobasal degeneration.

High proportions of viral-associated proteins in amyloid plaques or neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) confirm the involvement of HSV-1 in Alzheimer's disease pathology.

A normal brain (left) and one with CTE (right)

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy

0 links

Neurodegenerative disease linked to repeated trauma to the head.

Neurodegenerative disease linked to repeated trauma to the head.

A normal brain (left) and one with CTE (right)

Supporting features of CTE are: superficial neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs); p–tau in CA2 and CA4 hippocampus; p-tau in: mammillary bodies, hypothalamic nuclei, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, thalamus, midbrain tegmentum, nucleus basalis of Meynert, raphe nuclei, substantia nigra and locus coeruleus; p-tau thorn-shaped astrocytes (TSA) in the subpial region; p-tau dot-like neurites.

One candidate is the tracer, which is retained in the brain in individuals with a number of dementing disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Down syndrome, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, familial frontotemporal dementia, and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease.