Neuroticism

neuroticneuroticallyApprehensionemotional stabilitynervousnessneurotics
Neuroticism is one of the Big Five higher-order personality traits in the study of psychology.wikipedia
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Big Five personality traits

Big Fivefive factor modelFive-Factor Model
Neuroticism is one of the Big Five higher-order personality traits in the study of psychology.
The five factors have been defined as openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism, often represented by the acronyms OCEAN or CANOE. Beneath each proposed global factor, there are a number of correlated and more specific primary factors.

Trait theory

personality traitpersonality traitstraits
Neuroticism is one of the Big Five higher-order personality traits in the study of psychology.
Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, (EPQ) ("the three-factor model"). Using factor analysis Hans Eysenck suggested that personality is reducible to three major traits: neuroticism, extraversion, and psychoticism.

Neurosis

neuroticneurosespsychoneurosis
People with high neuroticism indexes are at risk for the development and onset of common mental disorders, such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and substance use disorder, symptoms of which had traditionally been called neuroses.
Neither should it be mistaken for neuroticism, a fundamental personality trait proposed in the Big Five personality traits theory.

Depression (mood)

depressiondepressedmelancholy
Individuals who score high on neuroticism are more likely than average to be moody and to experience such feelings as anxiety, worry, fear, anger, frustration, envy, jealousy, guilt, depressed mood, and loneliness.
High scores on the personality domain neuroticism make the development of depressive symptoms as well as all kinds of depression diagnoses more likely, and depression is associated with low extraversion.

Anxiety

anxiousnervousnessanxieties
Individuals who score high on neuroticism are more likely than average to be moody and to experience such feelings as anxiety, worry, fear, anger, frustration, envy, jealousy, guilt, depressed mood, and loneliness.
A meta-analysis showed that a high level of neuroticism is a risk factor for development of anxiety symptoms and disorders.

Psychology

psychologicalpsychologistpsychologists
Neuroticism is one of the Big Five higher-order personality traits in the study of psychology.
Although the number of proposed traits has varied widely, an early biologically-based model proposed by Hans Eysenck, the 3rd mostly highly cited psychologist of the 20th Century (after Freud, and Piaget respectively), suggested that at least three major trait constructs are necessary to describe human personality structure: extraversion–introversion, neuroticism-stability, and psychoticism-normality.

Core self-evaluations

core self-evaluationCore Self-evaluations Modelself-evaluations
Neuroticism has been included as one of the four dimensions that comprise core self-evaluations, one's fundamental appraisal of oneself, along with locus of control, self-efficacy, and self-esteem.
The concept of core self-evaluations was first examined by Judge, Locke, and Durham (1997) and involves four personality dimensions: locus of control, neuroticism, generalized self-efficacy, and self-esteem.

Gray's biopsychological theory of personality

behavioral activation systembehavioral activation system and the behavioral inhibition systembehavioral inhibition system
Neuroticism has also been studied from the perspective of Gray's biopsychological theory of personality, using a scale that measures personality along two dimensions: the behavioural inhibition system (BIS) and the behavioural activation system (BAS).
Neuroticism, a widely studied personality dimension related to emotional functioning, is positively correlated with BIS scales and negatively correlated with BAS scales.

Four temperaments

phlegmaticcholericsanguine
Galen of Pergamon popularized the idea that mixes of four bodily fluids or humours resulted in four personality types or temperaments.
The factors that he proposed in his book Dimensions of Personality were neuroticism (N), the tendency to experience negative emotions, and extraversion (E), the tendency to enjoy positive events, especially social ones.

Locus of control

internal locus of controlcontrolLoss of control
Neuroticism has been included as one of the four dimensions that comprise core self-evaluations, one's fundamental appraisal of oneself, along with locus of control, self-efficacy, and self-esteem.
Locus of control is one of the four dimensions of core self-evaluations – one's fundamental appraisal of oneself – along with neuroticism, self-efficacy, and self-esteem.

Extraversion and introversion

extraversionintrovertintroverted
Being high in scores of positive emotion is generally an element of the independent trait of extraversion.
Eysenck designated extraversion as one of three major traits in his P-E-N model of personality, which also includes psychoticism and neuroticism.

Frustration

frustratedwhinea lack of social reward
Individuals who score high on neuroticism are more likely than average to be moody and to experience such feelings as anxiety, worry, fear, anger, frustration, envy, jealousy, guilt, depressed mood, and loneliness.
Some people are predisposed towards feelings of frustration, indexed in terms of temperament (frustration), in adolescence and neuroticism in adulthood.

Arousal

arousedphysiological arousalactivation
Some define it as a tendency for quick arousal when stimulated and slow relaxation from arousal; others define it as emotional instability and negativity or maladjustment, in contrast to emotional stability and positivity, or good adjustment.
Neuroticism or emotional instability and extroversion are two factors of the Big Five Personality Index.

Job satisfaction

employee satisfactionsatisfactionJob Characteristics Model
The concept of core self-evaluations was first examined by Judge, Locke, and Durham (1997), and since then evidence has been found to suggest these have the ability to predict several work outcomes, specifically, job satisfaction and job performance.
Judge et al. argued that there are four Core Self-evaluations that determine one’s disposition towards job satisfaction: self-esteem, general self-efficacy, locus of control, and neuroticism.

Self-esteem

self-worthself esteemself-respect
Neuroticism has been included as one of the four dimensions that comprise core self-evaluations, one's fundamental appraisal of oneself, along with locus of control, self-efficacy, and self-esteem.
the core self-evaluations approach included self-esteem as one of four dimensions that comprise one's fundamental appraisal of oneself - along with locus of control, neuroticism, and self-efficacy.

Personality disorder

personality disorderspersonalitycluster A
A 2004 meta-analysis attempted to analyze personality disorders in light of the five-factor personality theory and failed to find meaningful discriminations; it did find that elevated neuroticism is correlated with many personality disorders.
With regard to their similarities, the findings revealed that the most prominent and consistent personality dimensions underlying a large number of the personality disorders are positive associations with neuroticism and negative associations with agreeableness.

Self-efficacy

self efficacyefficacypersonal change
Neuroticism has been included as one of the four dimensions that comprise core self-evaluations, one's fundamental appraisal of oneself, along with locus of control, self-efficacy, and self-esteem.
Furthermore, self-efficacy has been included as one of the four factors of core self-evaluation, one's fundamental appraisal of oneself, along with locus of control, neuroticism, and self-esteem.

Job performance

performancework performance performance
The concept of core self-evaluations was first examined by Judge, Locke, and Durham (1997), and since then evidence has been found to suggest these have the ability to predict several work outcomes, specifically, job satisfaction and job performance.
The concept of core self-evaluations was first examined by Judge, Locke, and Durham (1997) as a dispositional predictor of job satisfaction, and involves four personality dimensions; locus of control, neuroticism, self-efficacy, and self-esteem.

Hans Eysenck

EysenckHans Jurgen EysenckEysenck's three factor model
In the July 1951 article : “The Inheritance of Neuroticism” by Hans J. Eysenck and Donald Prell it was reported that some 80 per cent of individual differences in neuroticism are due to heredity and only 20 percent are due to environment....the factor of neuroticism is not a statistical artifact, but constitutes a biological unit which is inherited as a whole....neurotic predisposition is to a large extent hereditarily determined.
The two personality dimensions extraversion and neuroticism were described in his 1967 book Dimensions of Personality.

Eysenck Personality Questionnaire

EysenckEysenck Personality InventoryBig Three
This scale was correlated with two well-known measures of neuroticism, the BIS/BAS scale and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire.
N - Neuroticism/Stability: Neuroticism or emotionality is characterized by high levels of negative affect such as depression and anxiety.

Openness to experience

opennessopen mindedopen-mindedness
Geographically, a 2016 review said that in the US, neuroticism is highest in the mid-Atlantic states and southwards and declines westward, while openness to experience is highest in ethnically diverse regions of the mid-Atlantic, New England, the West Coast, and cities.
Openness to experience is strongly related to the psychological construct of absorption defined as "a disposition for having episodes of 'total' attention that fully engage one's representational (i.e. perceptual, enactive, imaginative, and ideational) resources.” The construct of absorption was developed in order to relate individual differences in hypnotisability to broader aspects of personality. The construct of absorption influenced Costa and McCrae's development of the concept of openness to experience in their original NEO model due to the independence of absorption from extraversion and neuroticism. A person's openness to becoming absorbed in experiences seems to require a more general openness to new and unusual experiences. Openness to experience, like absorption has modest positive correlations with individual differences in hypnotisability.

Negative affectivity

negative affectnegativenegative emotion
In children and adolescents, psychologists speak of temperamental negative affectivity that, during adolescence, develops into the neuroticism personality domain.
Trait negative affectivity roughly corresponds to the dominant personality factor of anxiety/neuroticism that is found within the Big Five personality traits as emotional stability.

Evolutionary approaches to depression

evolutionary advantageevolutionary theory of depressionimpaired activity and problem solving
For example, one of the evolutionary approaches to depression focuses on neuroticism and finds that heightened reactivity to negative outcomes may have had a survival benefit, and that furthermore a positive relationship has been found between neuroticism level and success in university with the precondition that the negative effects of neuroticism are also successfully coped with.
In particular, one theory focuses on the personality trait neuroticism.

Psychoticism

tough-minded
Psychoticism
Psychoticism is one of the three traits used by the psychologist Hans Eysenck in his P–E–N model (psychoticism, extraversion and neuroticism) model of personality.

Serotonin transporter

SERTserotonin5-HT
Dysregulation of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and glucocorticoid system, and influence of different versions of the serotonin transporter and 5-HT1A receptor genes may influence the development of neuroticism in combination with environmental effects like the quality of upbringing.
The polymorphism has also been related to personality traits with a Russian study from 2008 finding individuals with the STin2.10 allele having lower neuroticism score as measured with the Eysenck Personality Inventory.