Neurotoxicity

neurotoxicneurotoxinneurotoxinscentral nervous systemneurotoxicantbrain damagedisrupting the nervous systemglial cell toxicitynerve injuryneuro-toxicity
Neurotoxicity is a form of toxicity in which a biological, chemical, or physical agent produces an adverse effect on the structure or function of the central and/or peripheral nervous system.wikipedia
353 Related Articles

Neurotoxin

neurotoxicneurotoxinsneurotoxicity
It occurs when exposure to substance – specifically, a neurotoxin – alters the normal activity of the nervous system in such a way as to cause permanent or reversible damage to nervous tissue.
Neurotoxins are toxins that are destructive to nerve tissue (causing neurotoxicity).

Brain damage

brain injurybrain injuriesbrain lesion
The term neurotoxicity implies the involvement of a neurotoxin; however, the term neurotoxic may be used more loosely to describe states that are known to cause physical brain damage, but where no specific neurotoxin has been identified.
In general, brain damage refers to significant, undiscriminating trauma-induced damage, while neurotoxicity typically refers to selective, chemically induced neuron damage.

Recreational drug use

recreational drugdrug userecreational drugs
Neurotoxicity can result from organ transplants, radiation treatment, certain drug therapies (e.g., substances used in chemotherapy), recreational drug use, and exposure to heavy metals, bites from certain species of venomous snakes, pesticides, certain industrial cleaning solvents, and certain naturally occurring substances.

Venomous snake

venomousvenomous snakesnonvenomous
Neurotoxicity can result from organ transplants, radiation treatment, certain drug therapies (e.g., substances used in chemotherapy), recreational drug use, and exposure to heavy metals, bites from certain species of venomous snakes, pesticides, certain industrial cleaning solvents, and certain naturally occurring substances.
Snake venom may have both neurotoxic and hemotoxic properties.

Dopamine

dopaminergic systemDAdopaminergic
Some of the most common naturally occurring brain toxins that lead to neurotoxicity as a result of excessive drug use are beta amyloid (Aβ), glutamate, dopamine, and oxygen radicals.
Quinones and free radicals produced by autoxidation of dopamine can poison cells, and there is evidence that this mechanism may contribute to the cell loss that occurs in Parkinson's disease and other conditions.

Toxicity

toxicnon-toxicnontoxic
Neurotoxicity is a form of toxicity in which a biological, chemical, or physical agent produces an adverse effect on the structure or function of the central and/or peripheral nervous system.

Senile plaques

plaquessenile plaqueplaque
Thus they are left in the brain until they are broken down, but if enough accumulate, they form plaques which are toxic to neurons.
These polypeptides tend to aggregate and are believed to be neurotoxic.

Solvent

solventsorganic solventorganic solvents
Neurotoxicity can result from organ transplants, radiation treatment, certain drug therapies (e.g., substances used in chemotherapy), recreational drug use, and exposure to heavy metals, bites from certain species of venomous snakes, pesticides, certain industrial cleaning solvents, and certain naturally occurring substances.
Diethyl ether, chloroform, and many other solvents e.g. from gasoline or glues are abused recreationally in glue sniffing, often with harmful long term health effects like neurotoxicity or cancer.

Neurocognitive

neurocognitive deficitneurocognitionfunctioning of mind
The presence of neurocognitive deficits alone is not usually considered sufficient evidence of neurotoxicity, as many substances may impair neurocognitive performance without resulting in the death of neurons.

Batrachotoxin

batrachotoxinshomobatrachotoxinamphibians
Batrachotoxin (BTX) is an extremely potent cardiotoxic and neurotoxic steroidal alkaloid found in certain species of beetles, birds, and frogs.

Excitotoxicity

excitotoxicexcitotoxinglutamate toxicity
He also assessed that cell death was restricted to postsynaptic neurons, that glutamate agonists were as neurotoxic as their efficiency to activate glutamate receptors, and that glutamate antagonists could stop the neurotoxicity.

Nephrotoxicity

nephrotoxicnephrotoxinKidney damage

Central nervous system

CNScentralcentral nervous system (CNS)
Neurotoxicity is a form of toxicity in which a biological, chemical, or physical agent produces an adverse effect on the structure or function of the central and/or peripheral nervous system.

Peripheral nervous system

peripheralperipheral nervesPNS
Neurotoxicity is a form of toxicity in which a biological, chemical, or physical agent produces an adverse effect on the structure or function of the central and/or peripheral nervous system.

Nervous system

neuralnervousneurogenic
Neurotoxicity is a form of toxicity in which a biological, chemical, or physical agent produces an adverse effect on the structure or function of the central and/or peripheral nervous system.

Nervous tissue

neural tissuenerve tissueConnective tissue in the peripheral nervous system
It occurs when exposure to substance – specifically, a neurotoxin – alters the normal activity of the nervous system in such a way as to cause permanent or reversible damage to nervous tissue.

Neurotransmission

synaptic transmissioncotransmissionneuronal activity
This can eventually disrupt or even kill neurons, which are cells that transmit and process signals in the brain and other parts of the nervous system.

Organ transplantation

organ transplanttransplanttransplantation
Neurotoxicity can result from organ transplants, radiation treatment, certain drug therapies (e.g., substances used in chemotherapy), recreational drug use, and exposure to heavy metals, bites from certain species of venomous snakes, pesticides, certain industrial cleaning solvents, and certain naturally occurring substances.

Radiation therapy

radiotherapyradiation oncologyradiation
Neurotoxicity can result from organ transplants, radiation treatment, certain drug therapies (e.g., substances used in chemotherapy), recreational drug use, and exposure to heavy metals, bites from certain species of venomous snakes, pesticides, certain industrial cleaning solvents, and certain naturally occurring substances.

Pharmacotherapy

drug therapytreatmenttherapy
Neurotoxicity can result from organ transplants, radiation treatment, certain drug therapies (e.g., substances used in chemotherapy), recreational drug use, and exposure to heavy metals, bites from certain species of venomous snakes, pesticides, certain industrial cleaning solvents, and certain naturally occurring substances.

Chemotherapy

chemotherapeuticantineoplasticantineoplastic agent
Neurotoxicity can result from organ transplants, radiation treatment, certain drug therapies (e.g., substances used in chemotherapy), recreational drug use, and exposure to heavy metals, bites from certain species of venomous snakes, pesticides, certain industrial cleaning solvents, and certain naturally occurring substances.

Heavy metals

heavy metalheavy elementsheavy element
Neurotoxicity can result from organ transplants, radiation treatment, certain drug therapies (e.g., substances used in chemotherapy), recreational drug use, and exposure to heavy metals, bites from certain species of venomous snakes, pesticides, certain industrial cleaning solvents, and certain naturally occurring substances.

Pesticide

pesticidescrop sprayingchemical pesticides
Neurotoxicity can result from organ transplants, radiation treatment, certain drug therapies (e.g., substances used in chemotherapy), recreational drug use, and exposure to heavy metals, bites from certain species of venomous snakes, pesticides, certain industrial cleaning solvents, and certain naturally occurring substances.

Clearance (pharmacology)

clearanceclearedelimination
This may be due to the direct action of the substance, with the impairment and neurocognitive deficits being temporary, and resolving when the substance is eliminated from the body.

Amyloid beta

beta amyloidbeta-amyloidβ-amyloid
Some of the most common naturally occurring brain toxins that lead to neurotoxicity as a result of excessive drug use are beta amyloid (Aβ), glutamate, dopamine, and oxygen radicals.