Neurotoxin

neurotoxicneurotoxinsneurotoxicityneurotoxicologytoxiccobra neurotoxinsneurotoxic peptideneurotoxic venomneurotoxins,toxin
Neurotoxins are toxins that are destructive to nerve tissue (causing neurotoxicity).wikipedia
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Botulinum toxin

Botoxbotulinumbotulin
Common examples of neurotoxins include lead, ethanol (drinking alcohol), glutamate, nitric oxide, botulinum toxin (e.g. Botox), tetanus toxin, and tetrodotoxin.
Botulinum toxin (Botox) is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species.

Tetrodotoxin

tetradotoxintetrodotoxin (TTX)toxin
Common examples of neurotoxins include lead, ethanol (drinking alcohol), glutamate, nitric oxide, botulinum toxin (e.g. Botox), tetanus toxin, and tetrodotoxin.
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin.

Tetanospasmin

tetanus toxintetanus toxinstetanus toxoid
Common examples of neurotoxins include lead, ethanol (drinking alcohol), glutamate, nitric oxide, botulinum toxin (e.g. Botox), tetanus toxin, and tetrodotoxin.
Tetanus toxin is an extremely potent neurotoxin produced by the vegetative cell of Clostridium tetani in anaerobic conditions, causing tetanus.

Neurotoxicity

neurotoxicneurotoxinneurotoxins
Neurotoxins are toxins that are destructive to nerve tissue (causing neurotoxicity).
It occurs when exposure to substance – specifically, a neurotoxin – alters the normal activity of the nervous system in such a way as to cause permanent or reversible damage to nervous tissue.

Lead

Pblead orelead mining
Common examples of neurotoxins include lead, ethanol (drinking alcohol), glutamate, nitric oxide, botulinum toxin (e.g. Botox), tetanus toxin, and tetrodotoxin.
Lead is a neurotoxin that accumulates in soft tissues and bones; it damages the nervous system and interferes with the function of biological enzymes, causing neurological disorders, such as brain damage and behavioral problems.

Venom

venomousvenomsvenomous animals
As venomous organisms often use their neurotoxins to subdue a predator or prey very rapidly, toxins have evolved to become highly specific to their target channels such that the toxin does not readily bind other targets (see s).
Venoms kill through the action of at least four major classes of toxin, namely necrotoxins and cytotoxins, which kill cells; neurotoxins, which affect nervous systems; and myotoxins, which damage muscles.

Toxin

toxinstoxicbiotoxin
Neurotoxins are toxins that are destructive to nerve tissue (causing neurotoxicity). Caramboxin (CBX) is a toxin found in star fruit (Averrhoa carambola).

Clostridium botulinum

C. botulinumCl. botulinumbacillus botulinus
Botulinum Toxin (BTX) is a group of neurotoxins consisting of eight distinct compounds, referred to as BTX-A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H, which are produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and lead to muscular paralysis.
Clostridium botulinum is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming, motile bacterium with the ability to produce the neurotoxin botulinum.

Acetylcholine

cholinergicAChacetylcholine (ACh)
BTX functions peripherally to inhibit acetylcholine (ACh) release at the neuromuscular junction through degradation of the SNARE proteins required for ACh vesicle-membrane fusion.
Certain neurotoxins work by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, thus leading to excess acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, causing paralysis of the muscles needed for breathing and stopping the beating of the heart.

Cyanotoxin

Cyanobacterialcyanobacterial bloomscyanotoxins
It is a cyanotoxin produced by at least four different genera of cyanobacteria, and has been reported in North America, Europe, Africa, Asia, and New Zealand.
The toxins include potent neurotoxins, hepatotoxins, cytotoxins, and endotoxins.

Excitotoxicity

excitotoxicexcitotoxinglutamate toxicity
Local pathology of neurotoxin exposure often includes neuron excitotoxicity or apoptosis but can also include glial cell damage.
The L-alanine derivative β-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has long been identified as a neurotoxin which was first associated with the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism–dementia complex (ALS/PDC) in the Chamorro people of Guam.

Dimethylmercury

dimethyl mercury(CH 3 ) 2 HgHg(CH 3 ) 2
Mercury exists in a number of different compounds, though methylmercury (MeHg), dimethylmercury and diethylmercury are the only significantly neurotoxic forms.
A highly volatile, reactive, flammable, and colorless liquid, dimethylmercury is one of the strongest known neurotoxins, with a quantity of less than 0.1 mL capable of inducing severe mercury poisoning, and is easily absorbed through the skin.

Tetraodontidae

pufferfishpuffer fishblowfish
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a poison produced by organisms belonging to the Tetradontidae order, which includes the puffer fish, ocean sunfish, and porcupine fish.
This neurotoxin is found primarily in the ovaries and liver, although smaller amounts exist in the intestines and skin, as well as trace amounts in muscle.

Diethylmercury

(Et) 2 Hgdiethyl mercury
Mercury exists in a number of different compounds, though methylmercury (MeHg), dimethylmercury and diethylmercury are the only significantly neurotoxic forms.
Diethylmercury is a flammable, colorless liquid, and one of the strongest known neurotoxins.

Kappa-bungarotoxin

k-Bungarotoxinκ-bungarotoxin
For example, α-bungarotoxin is specific for nAChRs found in the musculature and κ-bungarotoxin is specific for nAChRs found in neurons.
Kappa-bungarotoxin (often written κ-Bgt; historically also called toxin F ) is a protein neurotoxin of the bungarotoxin family that is found in the venom of the many-banded krait, a snake found in Taiwan.

Coninae

cone snails
In many cases, the toxins released by the different types of cone snails include a range of different types of conotoxins, which may be specific for different ion channels, thus creating a venom capable of widespread nerve function interruption.
They hunt and immobilize prey using a modified radular tooth and a venom gland containing neurotoxins; the tooth is launched out of the snail's mouth in a harpoon-like action.

Action potential

action potentialsnerve impulsenerve impulses
This inhibition largely affects a susceptible subset of sodium channels known as TTX-sensitive (TTX-s), which also happens to be largely responsible for the sodium current that drives the depolarization phase of neuron action potentials.
This complex process is inhibited by the neurotoxins tetanospasmin and botulinum toxin, which are responsible for tetanus and botulism, respectively.

Scorpion

ScorpionesscorpionsChactoidea
Chlorotoxin (Cltx) is the active compound found in scorpion venom, and is primarily toxic because of its ability to inhibit the conductance of chloride channels.
The venom is a mixture of compounds (neurotoxins, enzyme inhibitors, etc.), each not only causing a different effect, but possibly also targeting a specific animal.

SNARE (protein)

SNARESNARE proteinsSNAREs
BTX functions peripherally to inhibit acetylcholine (ACh) release at the neuromuscular junction through degradation of the SNARE proteins required for ACh vesicle-membrane fusion.
Many neurotoxins directly affect SNARE complexes.

MPTP

mptp poisoning1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridinedrugs
MPP+, the toxic metabolite of MPTP is a selective neurotoxin which interferes with oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria by inhibiting complex I, leading to the depletion of ATP and subsequent cell death.
MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) is a prodrug to the neurotoxin MPP+, which causes permanent symptoms of Parkinson's disease by destroying dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the brain.

Paralysis

paralyzedparalysedparalytic
Botulinum Toxin (BTX) is a group of neurotoxins consisting of eight distinct compounds, referred to as BTX-A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H, which are produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and lead to muscular paralysis.
Many snakes exhibit powerful neurotoxins that can cause non-permanent paralysis or death.

Caramboxin

Caramboxin (CBX) is a toxin found in star fruit (Averrhoa carambola).
Caramboxin has been identified as the neurotoxin responsible for these effects.

MPP+

1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinecyperquat
MPP+, the toxic metabolite of MPTP is a selective neurotoxin which interferes with oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria by inhibiting complex I, leading to the depletion of ATP and subsequent cell death.
It is a neurotoxin that acts by interfering with oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria by inhibiting complex I, leading to the depletion of ATP and eventual cell death.

Cholinesterase

cholinesterasesacetylcholinesteraseserum esterase
Once it has triggered a contraction, anatoxin-a does not allow the neurons to return to their resting state, because it is not degraded by cholinesterase which normally performs this function.
Because of its essential function, chemicals that interfere with the action of cholinesterase are potent neurotoxins, causing excessive salivation and eye-watering in low doses, followed by muscle spasms and ultimately death (examples are some snake venoms, and the nerve gases sarin and VX).

Parkinson's disease

ParkinsonParkinson’s diseaseParkinson disease
In addition to its many uses in neuroscience research, TEA has been shown to perform as an effective treatment of Parkinson's disease through its ability to limit the progression of the disease.
The use of neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine, creates a model of Parkinson's disease in rats by targeting and destroying dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway when injected into the substantia nigra.