A report on Neurotransmitter receptor

Figure 1. The seven transmembrane α-helix structure of a G-protein-coupled receptor.
Ligand-gated ion channel
A mu-opioid G-protein-coupled receptor with its agonist

Membrane receptor protein that is activated by a neurotransmitter.

- Neurotransmitter receptor
Figure 1. The seven transmembrane α-helix structure of a G-protein-coupled receptor.

6 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Artistic interpretation of the major elements in chemical synaptic transmission. An electrochemical wave called an action potential travels along the axon of a neuron. When the action potential reaches the presynaptic terminal, it provokes the release of a synaptic vesicle, secreting its quanta of neurotransmitter molecules. The neurotransmitter binds to chemical receptor molecules located in the membrane of another neuron, the postsynaptic neuron, on the opposite side of the synaptic cleft.

Chemical synapse

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Chemical synapses are biological junctions through which neurons' signals can be sent to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.

Chemical synapses are biological junctions through which neurons' signals can be sent to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.

Artistic interpretation of the major elements in chemical synaptic transmission. An electrochemical wave called an action potential travels along the axon of a neuron. When the action potential reaches the presynaptic terminal, it provokes the release of a synaptic vesicle, secreting its quanta of neurotransmitter molecules. The neurotransmitter binds to chemical receptor molecules located in the membrane of another neuron, the postsynaptic neuron, on the opposite side of the synaptic cleft.
Diagram of a chemical synaptic connection.
Release of neurotransmitter occurs at the end of axonal branches.

These molecules then bind to neurotransmitter receptors on the postsynaptic cell.

Synaptic vesicles containing neurotransmitters

Neurotransmitter

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Signaling molecule secreted by a neuron to affect another cell across a synapse.

Signaling molecule secreted by a neuron to affect another cell across a synapse.

Synaptic vesicles containing neurotransmitters
Acetylcholine is cleaved in the synaptic cleft into acetic acid and choline
CAPON Binds Nitric Oxide Synthase, Regulating NMDA Receptor–Mediated Glutamate Neurotransmission

Neurotransmitters are released from synaptic vesicles into the synaptic cleft where they are able to interact with neurotransmitter receptors on the target cell.

Flowchart describing how an inhibitory postsynaptic potential works from neurotransmitter release to summation

Inhibitory postsynaptic potential

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Kind of synaptic potential that makes a postsynaptic neuron less likely to generate an action potential.

Kind of synaptic potential that makes a postsynaptic neuron less likely to generate an action potential.

Flowchart describing how an inhibitory postsynaptic potential works from neurotransmitter release to summation
Graph displaying an EPSP, an IPSP, and the summation of an EPSP and an IPSP. When the two are summed together the potential is still below the action potential threshold.

Inhibitory presynaptic neurons release neurotransmitters that then bind to the postsynaptic receptors; this induces a change in the permeability of the postsynaptic neuronal membrane to particular ions.

This single EPSP does not sufficiently depolarize the membrane to generate an action potential.

Excitatory postsynaptic potential

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Excitatory postsynaptic potential is a postsynaptic potential that makes the postsynaptic neuron more likely to fire an action potential.

Excitatory postsynaptic potential is a postsynaptic potential that makes the postsynaptic neuron more likely to fire an action potential.

This single EPSP does not sufficiently depolarize the membrane to generate an action potential.
The summation of these three EPSPs generates an action potential.

When an active presynaptic cell releases neurotransmitters into the synapse, some of them bind to receptors on the postsynaptic cell.

Diagram of the synapse. Please see learnbio.org for interactive version

Synapse

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Structure that permits a neuron to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target effector cell.

Structure that permits a neuron to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target effector cell.

Diagram of the synapse. Please see learnbio.org for interactive version
An example of chemical synapse by the release of neurotransmitters like acetylcholine or glutamic acid.
Different types of synapses
A typical central nervous system synapse
The synapse and synaptic vesicle cycle
Major elements in chemical synaptic transmission

In a chemical synapse, electrical activity in the presynaptic neuron is converted (via the activation of voltage-gated calcium channels) into the release of a chemical called a neurotransmitter that binds to receptors located in the plasma membrane of the postsynaptic cell. The neurotransmitter may initiate an electrical response or a secondary messenger pathway that may either excite or inhibit the postsynaptic neuron. Chemical synapses can be classified according to the neurotransmitter released: glutamatergic (often excitatory), GABAergic (often inhibitory), cholinergic (e.g. vertebrate neuromuscular junction), and adrenergic (releasing norepinephrine). Because of the complexity of receptor signal transduction, chemical synapses can have complex effects on the postsynaptic cell.

Electric field (arrows) and contours of constant voltage created by a pair of oppositely charged objects. The electric field is at right angles to the voltage contours, and the field is strongest where the spacing between contours is the smallest.

Membrane potential

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Basis of Membrane Potential2.png on opposite sides of a cellular membrane lead to a voltage called the membrane potential.

Basis of Membrane Potential2.png on opposite sides of a cellular membrane lead to a voltage called the membrane potential.

Electric field (arrows) and contours of constant voltage created by a pair of oppositely charged objects. The electric field is at right angles to the voltage contours, and the field is strongest where the spacing between contours is the smallest.
Ions (pink circles) will flow across a membrane from the higher concentration to the lower concentration (down a concentration gradient), causing a current. However, this creates a voltage across the membrane that opposes the ions' motion. When this voltage reaches the equilibrium value, the two balance and the flow of ions stops.
The cell membrane, also called the plasma membrane or plasmalemma, is a semipermeable lipid bilayer common to all living cells. It contains a variety of biological molecules, primarily proteins and lipids, which are involved in a vast array of cellular processes.
Facilitated diffusion in cell membranes, showing ion channels and carrier proteins
The sodium-potassium pump uses energy derived from ATP to exchange sodium for potassium ions across the membrane.
Despite the small differences in their radii, ions rarely go through the "wrong" channel. For example, sodium or calcium ions rarely pass through a potassium channel.
Depiction of the open potassium channel, with the potassium ion shown in purple in the middle, and hydrogen atoms omitted. When the channel is closed, the passage is blocked.
Ligand-gated calcium channel in closed and open states
Equivalent circuit for a patch of membrane, consisting of a fixed capacitance in parallel with four pathways each containing a battery in series with a variable conductance
Reduced circuit obtained by combining the ion-specific pathways using the Goldman equation
Graph displaying an EPSP, an IPSP, and the summation of an EPSP and an IPSP

A large subset function as neurotransmitter receptors—they occur at postsynaptic sites, and the chemical ligand that gates them is released by the presynaptic axon terminal.