Neutrino astronomy

Neutrino telescope
The IceCube Neutrino Detector at the South Pole. The PMTs are under more than a kilometer of ice, and will detect the photons from neutrino interactions within a cubic kilometer of ice
The proton-proton fusion chain that occurs within the sun. This process is responsible for the majority of the sun's energy.
The interior of the Earth as we know it. Currently, our information comes only from seismic data. Neutrinos would be an independent check on this data

Branch of astronomy that observes astronomical objects with neutrino detectors in special observatories.

- Neutrino astronomy

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Frederick Reines

American physicist.

Frederick Reines
Operation Greenhouse – Dog shot
Supernova SN1987A (the bright object in the center), as seen through the Hubble Space Telescope
Frederick Reines Hall at the University of California, Irvine houses the Physics and Astronomy Department, and part of the Chemistry Department.

This included the detection of neutrinos created in the atmosphere by cosmic rays, and the 1987 detection of neutrinos emitted from Supernova SN1987A, which inaugurated the field of neutrino astronomy.

Masatoshi Koshiba

Photograph of Koshiba published in 2002
with Jun'ichirō Koizumi and Kōichi Tanaka (at the Prime Minister's Official Residence on October 11, 2002)
with Jun'ichirō Koizumi (at Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo on August 27, 2003)

Masatoshi Koshiba (小柴 昌俊) was a Japanese physicist and one of the founders of neutrino astronomy.

Neutrino detector

Physics apparatus which is designed to study neutrinos.

The inside of the MiniBooNE neutrino detector
An illustration of the Antares neutrino detector deployed under water.

The field of neutrino astronomy is still very much in its infancy – the only confirmed extraterrestrial sources are the Sun and the supernova 1987A in the nearby Large Magellanic Cloud.

Telescope

Optical instrument using lenses, curved mirrors, or a combination of both to observe distant objects, or various devices used to observe distant objects by their emission, absorption, or reflection of electromagnetic radiation.

The 100-inch (2.54 m) Hooker reflecting telescope at Mount Wilson Observatory near Los Angeles, USA, used by Edwin Hubble to measure galaxy redshifts and discover the general expansion of the universe.
17th century telescope
The 60-inch Hale (debuted in 1908) considered to be the first modern large research reflecting telescope.
The primary mirror assembly of James Webb Space Telescope under construction. This is a segmented mirror and its coated with Gold to reflect (orange-red) visible light, through near-infrared to the mid-infrared
Modern telescopes typically use CCDs instead of film for recording images. This is the sensor array in the Kepler spacecraft.
A 1.2-meter (47 in) reflecting telescope
Binoculars
The Very Large Array at Socorro, New Mexico, United States.
Einstein Observatory was a space-based focusing optical X-ray telescope from 1978.
The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory is released into orbit by the Space Shutte in 1991, and it would operate until the year 2000
The reflectors of HEGRA detect flashes of light in the atmosphere, thus detecting high energy particles
Equatorial-mounted Keplerian telescope
A diagram of the electromagnetic spectrum with the Earth's atmospheric transmittance (or opacity) and the types of telescopes used to image parts of the spectrum.
Six views of the Crab nebula supernova remnant, viewed at different wavelengths of light by various telescopes
The Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope in Guizhou, China, is the world's largest filled-aperture radio telescope

Neutrino detectors, the equivalent of neutrino telescopes, used for neutrino astronomy. They consist of a large mass of water and ice, surrounded by an array of sensitive light detectors known as photomultiplier tubes. Originating direction of the neutrinos is determined by reconstructing the path of secondary particles scattered by neutrino impacts, from their interaction with multiple detectors.

Neutrino

A neutrino (denoted by the Greek letter [[Nu (letter)|

The first use of a hydrogen bubble chamber to detect neutrinos, on 13 November 1970, at Argonne National Laboratory. Here a neutrino hits a proton in a hydrogen atom; the collision occurs at the point where three tracks emanate on the right of the photograph.
Fred Reines and Clyde Cowan conducting the neutrino experiment c. 1956
Timeline of neutrino mass measurements by different experiments.
Solar neutrinos (proton–proton chain) in the Standard Solar Model
SN 1987A

These efforts marked the beginning of neutrino astronomy.

Antarctic Muon And Neutrino Detector Array

Neutrino telescope located beneath the Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station.

Diagram from the related precursor Project DUMAND illustrating the strings of sensors and detail of one of the sensors

AMANDA's goal was an attempt at neutrino astronomy, identifying and characterizing extra-solar sources of neutrinos.

KM3NeT

Future European research infrastructure that will be located at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea.

Artist's impression of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope anchored to the seabed
KM3NeT logo
KM3NeT Digital Optical Module (DOM) in the laboratory
Electronics to read out the photomultiplier tubes and calibration instrumentation inside the KM3NeT DOM
The KM3NeT LOM – the launching vehicle of Optical Modules – being loaded onto the RV Pelagia deployment vessel. A full string detection is rolled onto the LOM. After arrival at the seabed the string is unrolled to its full length.
A prototype KM3NeT DOM installed in the instrumentation line of the ANTARES neutrino telescope. The DOM is operational since April 2013.

It will host the next-generation neutrino telescope in the form of a water Cherenkov detector with an instrumented volume of several cubic kilometres distributed over three locations in the Mediterranean: KM3NeT-Fr (off Toulon, France), KM3NeT-It (off Portopalo di Capo Passero, Sicily, Italy) and KM3NeT-Gr (off Pylos, Peloponnese, Greece).

Cowan–Reines neutrino experiment

Conducted by Washington University in St. Louis alumnus Clyde L. Cowan and Stevens Institute of Technology and New York University alumnus Frederick Reines in 1956.

Clyde Cowan conducting the neutrino experiment circa 1956

of neutrino astronomy.

TXS 0506+056

Very high energy blazar – a quasar with a relativistic jet pointing directly towards Earth – of BL Lac-type.

Location of TXS 0506+056 as observed in gamma rays (energies greater than 1 GeV) by the Fermi Space Telescope

TXS 0506+056 is the first known source of high energy astrophysical neutrinos, identified following the IceCube-170922A neutrino event in an early example of multi-messenger astronomy.

Monopole, Astrophysics and Cosmic Ray Observatory

Particle physics experiment located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Abruzzo, Italy.

The Standard Model of particle physics, listing all elementary particles

4) neutrino astronomy and neutrino oscillations.