Neville Chamberlain

ChamberlainNevilleArthur Neville ChamberlainMr. ChamberlainRt Hon. Neville ChamberlainChamberlain Act The Right Honourable '''Neville ChamberlainBritain's declaration of war on GermanyBritish declaration of warBritish declaration of war against Germany
Arthur Neville Chamberlain (18 March 1869 – 9 November 1940) was a British Conservative statesman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from May 1937 to May 1940.wikipedia
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Appeasement

appeasement of Hitlerappeaseappeaser
Chamberlain is best known for his foreign policy of appeasement, and in particular for his signing of the Munich Agreement in 1938, conceding the German-speaking Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia to Germany.
The term is most often applied to the foreign policy of the British governments of Prime Ministers Ramsay MacDonald, Stanley Baldwin and Neville Chamberlain towards Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy between 1935 and 1939.

Austen Chamberlain

Sir Austen ChamberlainAustenChamberlain
After working in business and local government, and after a short spell as Director of National Service in 1916 and 1917, Chamberlain followed his father, Joseph Chamberlain, and older half-brother, Austen Chamberlain, in becoming a Member of Parliament in the 1918 general election for the new Birmingham Ladywood division at the age of 49.
Sir Joseph Austen Chamberlain, KG MP (16 October 1863 – 16 March 1937) was a British statesman, son of Joseph Chamberlain and older half-brother of Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain.

Joseph Chamberlain

ChamberlainJ Chamberlain The Right Honourable '''Joseph Chamberlain
After working in business and local government, and after a short spell as Director of National Service in 1916 and 1917, Chamberlain followed his father, Joseph Chamberlain, and older half-brother, Austen Chamberlain, in becoming a Member of Parliament in the 1918 general election for the new Birmingham Ladywood division at the age of 49.
Chamberlain and Florence had four children: the future Prime Minister Neville in 1869, Ida in 1870, Hilda in 1871 and Ethel in 1873.

National Government (United Kingdom)

National GovernmentNationalNational Independent
He was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer in the National Government in 1931.
In a historical sense, it refers primarily to the governments of Ramsay MacDonald, Stanley Baldwin and Neville Chamberlain which held office from 1931 until 1940.

Norwegian campaign

NorwayAllied campaign in NorwayGerman invasion of Norway
Chamberlain resigned the premiership on 10 May 1940 as the Allies were being forced to retreat from Norway, as he believed that a government supported by all parties was essential, and the Labour and Liberal parties would not join a government he headed.
Winston Churchill in particular wished to move the war into a more active phase, in contrast to Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain.

Winston Churchill

Sir Winston ChurchillChurchillChurchill, Winston
He was succeeded by Winston Churchill but remained very well regarded in Parliament, especially among Conservatives.
In 1940 he became prime minister, replacing Neville Chamberlain.

Munich Agreement

Munich CrisisMunich ConferenceSudeten Crisis
Chamberlain is best known for his foreign policy of appeasement, and in particular for his signing of the Munich Agreement in 1938, conceding the German-speaking Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia to Germany.
The French government did not wish to face Germany alone and took its lead from Britain's Conservative government of Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain.

Stanley Baldwin

BaldwinStanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of BewdleySir Stanley Baldwin
When Stanley Baldwin retired in May 1937, Chamberlain took his place as Prime Minister.
After winning the 1924 general election, Baldwin formed his second government, which saw important tenures of office by Sir Austen Chamberlain (Foreign Secretary), Winston Churchill (at the Exchequer) and Neville Chamberlain (Health).

Churchill war ministry

War CabinetCoalition Governmentwar-time coalition government
Before ill health forced him to resign, he was an important member of Churchill's war cabinet as Lord President of the Council, heading the Cabinet in the new premier's absence.
It was led by Winston Churchill, who was appointed Prime Minister by King George VI following the resignation of Neville Chamberlain in the aftermath of the Norway Debate.

Invasion of Poland

German invasion of Polandinvaded PolandSeptember Campaign
When Adolf Hitler invaded Poland, the UK declared war on Germany on 3 September 1939, and Chamberlain led Britain through the first eight months of the Second World War.
On the other hand, British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain and his Foreign Secretary, Lord Halifax, still hoped to strike a deal with Hitler regarding Danzig (and possibly the Polish Corridor).

Anne Chamberlain

Anne ColeAnneAnne de Vere Cole
At forty, Chamberlain was expecting to remain a bachelor, but in 1910 he fell in love with Anne Cole, a recent connection by marriage, and married her the following year.
Anne de Vere Chamberlain (1883 – 12 February 1967) was the wife of British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain.

Nazi Germany

Third ReichGermanGermany
Chamberlain is best known for his foreign policy of appeasement, and in particular for his signing of the Munich Agreement in 1938, conceding the German-speaking Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia to Germany.
Attempting to avoid war, British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain arranged a series of meetings, the result of which was the Munich Agreement, signed on 29 September 1938.

Mason Science College

Mason CollegeMason University CollegeMason College, Birmingham
Joseph Chamberlain then sent Neville to Mason College.
Two students of the college, Neville Chamberlain and Stanley Baldwin, later went on to become Prime Ministers of the UK.

World War II

Second World WarwarWWII
When Adolf Hitler invaded Poland, the UK declared war on Germany on 3 September 1939, and Chamberlain led Britain through the first eight months of the Second World War.
Soon the United Kingdom and France followed the counsel of British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain and conceded this territory to Germany in the Munich Agreement, which was made against the wishes of the Czechoslovak government, in exchange for a promise of no further territorial demands.

Labour Party (UK)

Labour PartyLabourBritish Labour Party
After a short-lived Labour-led government, he returned as Minister of Health, introducing a range of reform measures from 1924 to 1929.
As the threat from Nazi Germany increased, in the late 1930s the Labour Party gradually abandoned its pacifist stance and came to support re-armament, largely due to the efforts of Ernest Bevin and Hugh Dalton who by 1937 had also persuaded the party to oppose Neville Chamberlain's policy of appeasement.

Director of National Service

Minister of National ServiceParliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of National Service
After working in business and local government, and after a short spell as Director of National Service in 1916 and 1917, Chamberlain followed his father, Joseph Chamberlain, and older half-brother, Austen Chamberlain, in becoming a Member of Parliament in the 1918 general election for the new Birmingham Ladywood division at the age of 49.

Guilty Men

Chamberlain's reputation remains controversial among historians, the initial high regard for him being entirely eroded by books such as Guilty Men, published in July 1940, which blamed Chamberlain and his associates for the Munich accord and for allegedly failing to prepare the country for war.
The book shaped popular thinking about appeasement for twenty years; it effectively destroyed the reputation of former Prime Ministers Stanley Baldwin and Neville Chamberlain, and contributed to the defeat of the Conservative Party at the 1945 general election.

Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact

Molotov-Ribbentrop PactNazi-Soviet PactHitler-Stalin Pact
When Hitler continued his aggression, Chamberlain pledged Britain to defend Poland's independence if the latter were attacked, an alliance that brought his country into war when Germany and the Soviet Union invaded Poland in 1939.
The Munich Agreement that followed marked a partial German annexation of Czechoslovakia in late 1938 followed by its complete dissolution in March 1939, which was part of the appeasement of Germany conducted by Chamberlain's and Daladier's cabinets.

Historical rankings of prime ministers of the United Kingdom

2016 surveyBritish prime ministersgenerally rank him in the upper half
Nonetheless, Chamberlain is still unfavourably ranked amongst British Prime Ministers.

Clement Attlee

AttleeEarl AttleeAttlee government
Future Labour Prime Minister Clement Attlee complained that Chamberlain "always treated us like dirt," and in April 1927 Chamberlain wrote: "More and more do I feel an utter contempt for their lamentable stupidity."
Elected Leader of the Labour Party in 1935, and at first advocating pacificism and opposing re-armament, he became a critic of Neville Chamberlain's appeasement of Hitler and Mussolini in the lead-up to the Second World War.

Adolf Hitler

HitlerFührerthe leader
When Adolf Hitler invaded Poland, the UK declared war on Germany on 3 September 1939, and Chamberlain led Britain through the first eight months of the Second World War.
On 29 September Hitler, Neville Chamberlain, Édouard Daladier, and Mussolini attended a one-day conference in Munich that led to the Munich Agreement, which handed over the Sudetenland districts to Germany.

Beatrice Chamberlain

Neville Chamberlain was educated at home by his elder sister Beatrice Chamberlain and later at Rugby School.
Beatrice took over as de facto mother and governess to her half siblings which included Neville Chamberlain who would be the Prime Minister who declared war on Germany.

Anthony Eden

Sir Anthony EdenEdenAnthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon
At age 68, he was the second-eldest person in the 20th century (behind Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman) to become Prime Minister for the first time, and was widely seen as a caretaker who would lead the Conservative Party until the next election and then step down in favour of a younger man, with Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden a likely candidate.
Achieving rapid promotion as a young Member of Parliament, he became Foreign Secretary aged 38, before resigning in protest at Neville Chamberlain's appeasement policy towards Mussolini's Italy.

Alec Douglas-Home

Sir Alec Douglas-HomeLord HomeThe Earl of Home
Chamberlain had few friends among his parliamentary colleagues; an attempt by his Parliamentary Private Secretary, Lord Dunglass (later Prime Minister himself as Alec Douglas-Home), to bring him to the Commons Smoking Room to socialise with colleagues ended in embarrassing silence.
Douglas-Home (under the courtesy title Lord Dunglass) entered Parliament in 1931 and served as Neville Chamberlain's parliamentary aide, although his diagnosis in 1940 with spinal tuberculosis would immobilise him for two years.

Phoney War

Phony WarDrôle de guerreSitzkrieg
When Adolf Hitler invaded Poland, the UK declared war on Germany on 3 September 1939, and Chamberlain led Britain through the first eight months of the Second World War.
The debacle of the Allied campaign in Norway, which was actually an offshoot of the never-realised plans to aid Finland, forced a famous debate in the House of Commons during which the British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain was under constant attack.