A report on New York (state)Quebec and New England

Indigenous territories, circa 1600 in present-day southern New England
New York was dominated by Iroquoian (purple) and Algonquian (pink) tribes.
A depiction of Jacques Cartier by Théophile Hamel, 1844
Soldier and explorer John Smith coined the name "New England" in 1616.
New Amsterdam, present-day Lower Manhattan, 1660
Three Huron-Wyandot chiefs from Wendake. New France had largely peaceful relations with the Indigenous people, such as their allies the Huron. After the defeat of the Huron by their mutual enemy, the Iroquois, many fled from Ontario to Quebec.
A 1638 engraving depicting the Mystic massacre
New York and neighboring provinces, by Claude Joseph Sauthier, 1777
Montcalm leading his troops into battle. Watercolour by Charles William Jefferys.
An English map of New England c. 1670 depicts the area around modern Portsmouth, New Hampshire.
British general John Burgoyne surrenders at Saratoga in 1777
The Province of Quebec in 1774
The New England Ensign, one of several flags historically associated with New England. This flag was reportedly used by colonial merchant ships sailing out of New England ports, 1686 – c. 1737.
1800 map of New York from Low's Encyclopaedia
The Battle of Saint-Eustache was the final battle of the Lower Canada Rebellion.
New England's Siege of Louisbourg (1745) by Peter Monamy
The Erie Canal at Lockport, New York, in 1839
George-Étienne Cartier, creator of the Quebec state and premier of Canada East
The Slater Mill Historic Site in Pawtucket, Rhode Island
Flight 175 hitting the South Tower on September11, 2001
Maurice Duplessis, premier of Quebec from 1936 to 1939 and during the Grande Noirceur
Bread and Roses Strike. Massachusetts National Guard troops surround unarmed strikers in Lawrence, Massachusetts, 1912.
Flooding on AvenueC in Lower Manhattan caused by Hurricane Sandy
"Maîtres chez nous" was the electoral slogan of the Liberal Party during the 1962 election.
Autumn in New England, watercolor, Maurice Prendergast, c.1910–1913
New York is bordered by six U.S. states, two Great Lakes, and the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec.
René Lévesque, one of the architects of the Quiet Revolution, and the Premier of Quebec's first modern sovereignist government
Cambridge, Massachusetts, has a high concentration of startups and technology companies.
Enveloped by the Atlantic Ocean and Long Island Sound, New York City and Long Island alone are home to about eleven million residents conjointly.
Map of Quebec
A political and geographical map of New England shows the coastal plains in the southeast, and hills, mountains and valleys in the west and the north.
Lake-effect snow is a major contributor to heavy snowfall totals in western New York, including the Tug Hill region.
Michel's falls on Ashuapmushuan River in Saint-Félicien, Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean
A portion of the north-central Pioneer Valley in Sunderland, Massachusetts
Two major state parks (in green) are the Adirondack Park (north) and the Catskill Park (south).
Köppen climate types of Quebec
Köppen climate types in New England
The Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor is a symbol of the United States and its ideals.
Baie-Saint-Paul during winter
The White Mountains of New Hampshire are part of the Appalachian Mountains.
The African Burial Ground National Monument in Lower Manhattan
The Parliament Building in Quebec City
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Map of the counties in New York
The seventeen administrative regions of Quebec.
Montpelier, Vermont, is the smallest state capital in the United States.
New York population distribution map. New York's population is primarily concentrated in the Greater New York area, including New York City and Long Island.
The Édifice Ernest-Cormier is the courthouse for the Quebec Court of Appeal in Montreal
Largest self-reported ancestry groups in New England. Americans of Irish descent form a plurality in most of Massachusetts, while Americans of English descent form a plurality in much of the central parts of Vermont and New Hampshire as well as nearly all of Maine.
The Stonewall Inn in the gay village of Greenwich Village, Lower Manhattan, site of the June 1969 Stonewall riots, the cradle of the modern LGBT rights movement
The Basilica of Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré
World's largest Irish flag in Boston. People who claim Irish descent constitute the largest ethnic group in New England.
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Southeastern New England is home to a number of Lusophone ethnic enclaves.
The main laboratory building of the IBM Watson Research Center is located in Yorktown Heights, New York.
Map of aboriginal communities in Quebec, this includes reserves, settlements and northern villages.
The Port of Portland in Portland, Maine, is the largest tonnage seaport in New England.
Times Square in Midtown Manhattan, hub of the Broadway theater district, a media center, and one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections
The Institut national de la recherche scientifique helps to advance scientific knowledge and to train a new generation of students in various scientific and technological sectors.
The Hartford headquarters of Aetna is housed in a 1931 Colonial Revival building.
"I Love New York"
Quebec's exports to the international market. The United States is the country which buys the most Québécois exports by far. (2011)
A plowed field in Bethel, Vermont
CMA CGM Theodore Roosevelt, the largest container ship to enter the Port of New York and New Jersey as of September7, 2017
The Beauharnois generating station, operated by Hydro-Québec
Seabrook Station Nuclear Power Plant in Seabrook, New Hampshire
Harris Hall of the City College of New York, a public college of the City University of New York
A mockup of the Airbus A220 (formerly the Bombardier CSeries), originally developed by Bombardier Aerospace
A New England town meeting in Huntington, Vermont
Butler Library at Columbia University
The Château Frontenac is the most photographed hotel in the world.
Flag of the New England Governor's Conference (NEGC)
University of Rochester
In 1969, Héroux-Devtek designed and manufactured the undercarriage of the Apollo Lunar Module.
Alumni Hall at Saint Anselm College has served as a backdrop for media reports during the New Hampshire primary.
South campus of the University at Buffalo, the flagship of the State University of New York
The ferry N.M. Camille-Marcoux, of the Société des traversiers du Québec
New England is home to four of the eight Ivy League universities. Pictured here is Harvard Yard of Harvard University.
The New York City Subway is one of the world's busiest, serving more than five million passengers per average weekday.
The show Dralion, Cirque du Soleil, introduced in 2004
Phillips Exeter Academy and Phillips Academy are two prestigious New England secondary schools founded in the late 18th century
Grand Central Terminal in New York City
La chasse-galerie (1906) by Henri Julien, showing a scene from a popular Quebec folk legend.
Flag of New England flying in Massachusetts. New Englanders maintain a strong sense of regional and cultural identity.
John F. Kennedy Airport in Queens, the busiest international air passenger gateway to the United States
La Cavalière by Charles Daudelin, 1963, installed in front of the pavilion Gérard Morisset of the Quebec National Museum of Fine Arts in Quebec City
A classic New England Congregational church in Peacham, Vermont
The New York State Capitol in Albany
Maison Routhier in Sainte-Foy. This kind of Canadien-style house remains a symbol of Canadien nationalism.
Boston's Symphony Hall is the home of the Boston Symphony Orchestra—the second-oldest of the Big Five American symphony orchestras.
New York State Court of Appeals
A classic poutine from La Banquise in Montreal
New England regionalist poet Robert Frost
Kirsten Gillibrand and Chuck Schumer, New York's U.S. Senators
The Montreal Canadiens at the Bell Centre
Wes Anderson's Moonrise Kingdom is set on a fictional New England island and was largely filmed in Rhode Island
Kathy Hochul (D), the 57th Governor of New York
St-Jean-Baptiste Day celebrations at Maisonneuve park in Montréal
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Yankee Stadium in The Bronx
The Fleurdelisé flying at Place d'Armes in Montreal
A Hartford Line Train at Hartford Union Station
Koppen climate of New York
Canada in the 18th century.
The MBTA Commuter Rail serves eastern Massachusetts and parts of Rhode Island, radiating from downtown Boston, with planned service to New Hampshire. The CTrail system operates the Shore Line East and Hartford Line, covering coastal Connecticut, Hartford, and Springfield, Massachusetts.
The Province of Quebec from 1763 to 1783.
1. Boston, Massachusetts
Lower Canada from 1791 to 1841. (Patriots' War in 1837, Canada East in 1841)
2. Worcester, Massachusetts
Quebec from 1867 to 1927.
3. Providence, Rhode Island
Quebec today. Quebec (in blue) has a border dispute with Labrador (in red).
4. Springfield, Massachusetts
Different forest areas of Quebec. 1. Middle Arctic Tundra
2. Low Arctic Tundra
3. Torngat Mountain Tundra
4. Eastern Canadian Shield Taiga
5. Southern Hudson Bay Taiga
6. Central Canadian Shield Forests
7. Eastern Canadian Forests
8. Eastern Forest/Boreal Transition
9. Eastern Great Lakes Lowland Forests
10. New England/Acadian Forests
11. Gulf of St. Lawrence Lowland Forests
5. Bridgeport, Connecticut
6. Stamford, Connecticut
7. New Haven, Connecticut
8. Hartford, Connecticut
9. Cambridge, Massachusetts
10. Manchester, New Hampshire
Harvard vs. Yale football game in 2003
Fenway Park
Bill Russell and Red Auerbach of the Boston Celtics
The New England Patriots are the most popular professional sports team in New England.
The Middlebury College rowing team in the 2007 Head of the Charles Regatta
Köppen climate types in New England

It is bordered by the state of New York to the west and by the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick to the northeast and Quebec to the north.

- New England

The state of New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Vermont to the east; it has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest.

- New York (state)

Located in Central Canada, the province shares land borders with Ontario to the west, Newfoundland and Labrador to the northeast, New Brunswick to the southeast, and a coastal border with Nunavut; in the south it borders Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York in the United States.

- Quebec

Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land.

- New York (state)

As access to new lands remained problematic because they were still monopolized by the Clique du Château, an exodus of Canadiens towards New England began and went on for the next one hundred years.

- Quebec

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<center>Western Abenaki (Arsigantegok, Missisquoi, Cowasuck, Sokoki, Pennacook)</center>

Abenaki

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Indigenous peoples of the Northeastern Woodlands of Canada and the United States.

Indigenous peoples of the Northeastern Woodlands of Canada and the United States.

<center>Western Abenaki (Arsigantegok, Missisquoi, Cowasuck, Sokoki, Pennacook)</center>
<center>Eastern Abenaki (Penobscot, Kennebec, Arosaguntacook, Pigwacket/Pequawket)</center>
Abenaki teepee with birch bark covering.
Flag of Missisquoi Abenaki Tribe, a state-recognized tribe in Vermont
Statue of Keewakwa Abenaki Keenahbeh in Opechee Park in Laconia, New Hampshire (standing at 36 ft.)
<center>Miꞌkmaq</center>
<center>Maliseet,

The Eastern Abenaki language was predominantly spoken in Maine, while the Western Abenaki language was spoken in Quebec, Vermont, and New Hampshire.

Wôbanakiak is derived from wôban ("dawn" or "east") and aki ("land") (compare Proto-Algonquian *wa·pan and *axkyi) — the aboriginal name of the area broadly corresponding to New England and the Maritimes.

Tribal members are working to revive the Abenaki language at Odanak (means "in the village"), a First Nations Abenaki reserve near Pierreville, Quebec, and throughout New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York state.

Vermont

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The Old Constitution House at Windsor, where the Constitution of Vermont was adopted on July 8, 1777
A circa 1775 flag used by the Green Mountain Boys
The gold leaf dome of the neoclassical Vermont State House (Capitol) in Montpelier
1791 Act of Congress admitting Vermont into the Union
Vermont in 1827. The county boundaries have since changed.
Map of Vermont showing cities, roads, and rivers
Population density of Vermont
Mount Mansfield
Western face of Camel's Hump Mountain (elevation 4079 ft).
Fall foliage at Lake Willoughby
Köppen climate types of Vermont, using 1991–2020 climate normals.
Silurian and Devonian stratigraphy of Vermont
The hermit thrush, the state bird of Vermont
A proportional representation of Vermont exports, 2020
Fall foliage seen from Hogback Mountain, Wilmington
Lake Champlain
Autumn in Vermont
Stowe Resort Village
The Lyndon Institute, a high school in Lyndon, Vermont
The University of Vermont
Old Mill, the oldest building of the university
Vermont welcome sign in Addison on Route 17 just over the New York border over the Champlain Bridge
Amtrak station in White River Junction
The Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant, in Vernon
The Vermont Supreme Court's building in Montpelier
Vermont towns hold a March town meeting for voters to approve the town's budget and decide other matters. Marlboro voters meet in this building.
Senators Bernie Sanders and Patrick Leahy and Representative Peter Welch greet supporters in 2017.
Vermontasaurus sculpture in Post Mills, in 2010

Vermont is a state in the New England region of the United States.

It borders the states of Massachusetts to the south, New Hampshire to the east, and New York to the west, and the Canadian province of Quebec to the north.

Pre-contact distribution of Algonquian languages

Algonquian peoples

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The Algonquian are one of the most populous and widespread North American native language groups.

The Algonquian are one of the most populous and widespread North American native language groups.

Pre-contact distribution of Algonquian languages
A 16th-century sketch of the Algonquian village of Pomeiock.

At the time of the first European settlements in North America, Algonquian peoples occupied what is now New Brunswick, and much of what is now Canada east of the Rocky Mountains; what is now New England, New Jersey, southeastern New York, Delaware and down the Atlantic Coast through the Upper South; and around the Great Lakes in present-day Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana and Iowa.

Maliseet of New Brunswick and Quebec.

Voyageurs Passing a Waterfall by Frances Anne Hopkins

French Canadians

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Ethnic group who trace their ancestry to French colonists who settled in Canada beginning in the 17th century.

Ethnic group who trace their ancestry to French colonists who settled in Canada beginning in the 17th century.

Voyageurs Passing a Waterfall by Frances Anne Hopkins
Habitants by Cornelius Krieghoff (1852)
Languages in Quebec
Université de Saint-Boniface in Manitoba
Major ethnicities in Canada
Distribution of French Americans in the United States
Distribution of the proportion of French Canadian across Canada.
Distribution of French in the United States
The fleur-de-lis, symbol of French Canada
Quebec stop sign
Québécois
Acadians
Franco-Albertans
Fransaskois
Franco-Columbians
Franco-Manitobans
Franco-Ontarians
Franco-Yukonnais
Franco-Nunavois
Franco-Ténois
Franco-Terreneuviens

Between 1840 and 1930, many French Canadians immigrated to New England, an event known as the Grande Hémorragie.

French settlers from Normandy, Perche, Beauce, Brittany, Maine, Anjou, Touraine, Poitou, Aunis, Angoumois, Saintonge and Gascony were the first Europeans to permanently colonize what is now Quebec, parts of Ontario, Acadia, and select areas of Western Canada, all in Canada (See French colonization of the Americas.) Their colonies of New France (also commonly called Canada) stretched across what today are the Maritime provinces, southern Quebec and Ontario, as well as the entire Mississippi River Valley.

During the mid-18th century, French Canadian explorers and colonists colonized other parts of North America in what are today Louisiana (called Louisianais), Mississippi, Missouri, Illinois, Wisconsin, Indiana, Ohio, far northern New York and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan as well as around Detroit.

Clockwise from top:
Damage to the United States Capitol after the burning of Washington

Mortally wounded Isaac Brock spurs on the York Volunteers at the battle of Queenston Heights

USS Constitution vs HMS Guerriere

The death of Tecumseh in 1813

Andrew Jackson defeats the British assault on New Orleans in 1815

War of 1812

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Fought by the United States of America and its indigenous allies against the United Kingdom and its allies in British North America, with limited participation by Spain in Florida.

Fought by the United States of America and its indigenous allies against the United Kingdom and its allies in British North America, with limited participation by Spain in Florida.

Clockwise from top:
Damage to the United States Capitol after the burning of Washington

Mortally wounded Isaac Brock spurs on the York Volunteers at the battle of Queenston Heights

USS Constitution vs HMS Guerriere

The death of Tecumseh in 1813

Andrew Jackson defeats the British assault on New Orleans in 1815
Upper and Lower Canada, circa 1812
Map showing the general distribution of Indian tribes in the Northwest Territory in the early 1790s
American expansion in the Indiana Territory
James Madison, the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817). Madison was the leader of the Democratic-Republican Party, whose power base came from southern and western states.
Depiction of a British private soldier (left) and officer (right) of the period
Governor General George Prévost was urged to maintain a defensive strategy as British forces were already preoccupied with the Napoleonic Wars.
Northern theatre, War of 1812
American surrender of Detroit, August 1812
Oliver Hazard Perry's message to William Henry Harrison after the Battle of Lake Erie began as such: "We have met the enemy and they are ours".
Laura Secord providing advance warning to James FitzGibbon, which led to a British-Iroquois victory at the Battle of Beaver Dams, June 1813
Fencibles, militia, and Mohawks repel an American attack on Montreal, Battle of the Chateauguay, October 1813
American infantry prepare to attack during the Battle of Lundy's Lane
Unsuccessful British assault on Fort Erie, 14 August 1814
Defeat at Plattsburgh led Prévost to call off the invasion of New York.
The Upper Mississippi River during the War of 1812:
The Royal Navy's North American squadron was based in Halifax, Nova Scotia and Bermuda. At the start of the war, the squadron had one ship of the line, seven frigates, nine sloops as well as brigs and schooners.
USS Constitution defeats in a single-ship engagement. The battle was an important victory for American morale.
Captain Broke leads the boarding party to USS Chesapeake (1799). The British capture of Chesapeake was one of the bloodiest contests in the age of sail.
The Battle of Valparaíso ended the American naval threat to British interests in the south Pacific Ocean.
The capture of USS President was the last naval duel to take place during the conflict, with its combatants unaware of the signing of the Treaty of Ghent several weeks prior.
Marines aboard USS Wasp (1814) engage, June 1814. During the war, sloops of the United States Navy scored several victories against British sloops.
Baltimore Clippers were a series of schooners used by American privateers during the war.
A map of the American coastline. British naval strategy was to protect their shipping in North America and enforce a naval blockade on the United States.
The only known photograph of a Black Refugee, c. 1890. During the war, a number of African Americans slaves escaped aboard British ships, settling in Canada (mainly in Nova Scotia) or Trinidad.
Map of the Chesapeake Campaign
Admiralty House, at Mount Wyndham, Bermuda, where the Chesapeake campaign was planned
An artist's rendering of the bombardment at Fort McHenry during the Battle of Baltimore. Watching the bombardment from a truce ship, Francis Scott Key was inspired to write the four-stanza poem that later became "The Star-Spangled Banner".
In 1813, Creek warriors attacked Fort Mims and killed 400 to 500 people. The massacre became a rallying point for Americans.
Creek forces were defeated at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, bringing an end to the Creek War.
American forces repelled a British assault on New Orleans in January 1815. The battle occurred before news of a peace treaty reached the United States.
A political caricature of delegates from the Hartford Convention deciding whether to leap into the hands of the British, December 1814. The convention led to widespread fears that the New England states might attempt to secede from the United States.
Depiction of the signing of the Treaty of Ghent, which formally ended the war between the British Empire and the United States
United States per capita GDP 1810–1815 in constant 2009 dollars
The Royal Naval Dockyard, Bermuda
Fort Henry at Kingston in 1836. Built from 1832 to 1836, the fort was one of several works undertaken to improve the colonies' defences.
Independence Day celebrations in 1819. In the United States, the war was followed by the Era of Good Feelings, a period that saw nationalism and a desire for national unity rise throughout the country.

Thomas Jefferson believed taking "...Canada this year, as far as...Quebec, will be a mere matter of marching, and will give us the experience for the attack on Halifax, the next and final expulsion of England from the American continent".

American prosecution of the war suffered from its unpopularity, especially in New England where anti-war speakers were vocal.

Indigenous nations were displaced in Alabama, Georgia, New York and Oklahoma, losing most of what is now Indiana, Michigan, Ohio and Wisconsin within the Northwest Territory as well as in New York and the South.