New England town

towntownsNew Englandtownshipcities and townstownshipsCities and towns in New EnglandCitygoreincorporated towns
The New England town, generally referred to simply as a town in New England, is the basic unit of local government and local division of state authority in each of the six New England states and without a direct counterpart in most other U.S. states.wikipedia
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Civil township

townshipstownshiptown
New England towns overlay the entire area of a state, similar to civil townships in other states where they exist, but they are fully functioning municipal corporations, possessing powers similar to cities in other states.
The term town is used in New England, New York, and Wisconsin to refer to the equivalent of the civil township in these states.

Town meeting

open town meetingtown meetingsTown Meeting Moderator
New England towns are often governed by a town meeting legislative body. Traditionally, a town's legislative body is the open town meeting, which is a form of direct democratic rule, with a board of selectmen possessing executive authority. Only several Swiss cantons with Landsgemeinde remain as democratic as the small New England town meetings.
Typically conducted by New England towns, town meeting can also refer to meetings of other governmental bodies, such as school districts or water districts.

Village (Vermont)

villageincorporated villageunincorporated village
More than 90% of the municipalities in the six New England states are identified as towns. Other forms of municipalities that exist are generally based on the town concept, as well—most notably cities. Most New England cities have adopted a city form of government, with a council and a mayor or manager. Municipal entities based on the concept of a compact populated place are uncommon, such as a Vermont village or Connecticut borough. In areas of New England where such forms do exist, they remain part of the parent town and do not have all of the corporate powers and authority of an independent municipality.
In the U.S. state of Vermont, villages are named communities located within the boundaries of an incorporated town.

Board of selectmen

selectmanSelectman-town meetingselectmen
Traditionally, a town's legislative body is the open town meeting, which is a form of direct democratic rule, with a board of selectmen possessing executive authority. Only several Swiss cantons with Landsgemeinde remain as democratic as the small New England town meetings.
The board of selectmen or select board is commonly the executive arm of the government of New England towns in the United States.

Borough (Connecticut)

boroughboroughsborough government
More than 90% of the municipalities in the six New England states are identified as towns. Other forms of municipalities that exist are generally based on the town concept, as well—most notably cities. Most New England cities have adopted a city form of government, with a council and a mayor or manager. Municipal entities based on the concept of a compact populated place are uncommon, such as a Vermont village or Connecticut borough. In areas of New England where such forms do exist, they remain part of the parent town and do not have all of the corporate powers and authority of an independent municipality.
In the U.S. state of Connecticut, a borough is an incorporated section of a town.

Connecticut

CTState of ConnecticutConn.
The entire land areas of Connecticut and Rhode Island had been divided into towns by the late 18th century, and Massachusetts was almost completely covered early in the 19th century.
There are 169 incorporated towns in Connecticut.

Vermont

VTState of VermontVt.
Early town organization in Vermont and much of New Hampshire proceeded in a somewhat different manner from that of the other New England states.
Although these towns are large enough to be considered cities, they are not incorporated as such.

New England

southern New EnglandNew EnglanderNew England region
The New England town, generally referred to simply as a town in New England, is the basic unit of local government and local division of state authority in each of the six New England states and without a direct counterpart in most other U.S. states.
New England town meetings were derived from meetings held by church elders, and are still an integral part of government in many New England towns.

New Haven, Connecticut

New HavenNew Haven, CTNew Haven, Conn.
The oldest cities in New England date to the last few decades of the 18th century, (e.g. New Haven, Connecticut was chartered as a city in 1784).
By 1640, "Qunnipiac's" theocratic government and nine-square grid plan were in place, and the town was renamed Newhaven, with 'haven' meaning harbor or port.

Braintree, Massachusetts

BraintreeSouth BraintreeBraintree, MA
In Massachusetts, 13 municipalities (Agawam, Amesbury, Barnstable, Braintree, Easthampton, Franklin, Greenfield, Palmer, Randolph, Southbridge, Watertown, West Springfield and Weymouth) have adopted Mayor-Council or Council-Manager forms of government in their home rule charters, and are therefore considered to be legally cities, but nevertheless continue to call themselves "towns".
Braintree, officially the Town of Braintree, is a suburban New England city in Norfolk County, Massachusetts, United States.

Boston

Boston, MassachusettsBoston, MABoston, United States
Boston, for instance, was a town for the first two centuries of its existence.
Boston is surrounded by the "Greater Boston" region and is contiguously bordered by the cities and towns of Winthrop, Revere, Chelsea, Everett, Somerville, Cambridge, Watertown, Newton, Brookline, Needham, Dedham, Canton, Milton, and Quincy.

Easthampton, Massachusetts

EasthamptonEast HamptonEasthampton (city)
In Massachusetts, 13 municipalities (Agawam, Amesbury, Barnstable, Braintree, Easthampton, Franklin, Greenfield, Palmer, Randolph, Southbridge, Watertown, West Springfield and Weymouth) have adopted Mayor-Council or Council-Manager forms of government in their home rule charters, and are therefore considered to be legally cities, but nevertheless continue to call themselves "towns".
In 1785, the village of Easthampton was formally named its own separate political entity, and in 1809, it officially became a town.

Charlestown, New Hampshire

CharlestownCharlestown NHNo. 4
For a historical example in New Hampshire, see Plantation number four.
Charlestown is a town in Sullivan County, New Hampshire, United States.

West Springfield, Massachusetts

West Springfield[*W. Springfield
In Massachusetts, 13 municipalities (Agawam, Amesbury, Barnstable, Braintree, Easthampton, Franklin, Greenfield, Palmer, Randolph, Southbridge, Watertown, West Springfield and Weymouth) have adopted Mayor-Council or Council-Manager forms of government in their home rule charters, and are therefore considered to be legally cities, but nevertheless continue to call themselves "towns".
In many ways, the distinction between the church and the state in the early New England town form of government was fuzzy, though religious and secular meetings were held separately and generally led by different people.

Direct democracy

direct democraticdirect legislationdirect
Traditionally, a town's legislative body is the open town meeting, which is a form of direct democratic rule, with a board of selectmen possessing executive authority. Only several Swiss cantons with Landsgemeinde remain as democratic as the small New England town meetings.
In the New England region of the United States, towns in areas such as Vermont decide local affairs through the direct democratic process of the town meeting.

Coterminous municipality

coterminouscoextensive and consolidatedconsolidate
Just as boroughs in Connecticut overlay towns, so do cities; for example, while Hartford is commonly thought of as a city, it is coextensive and consolidated with the Town of Hartford; governed by a single governmental entity with the powers and responsibilities of the Town being carried out by the entity referred to as the City of Hartford.
The entire area of Connecticut is divided into towns.

Killingly, Connecticut

KillinglyEast KillinglyElmville
At least one borough historically spanned more than one town: the borough of Danielsonville originally laid over parts of Killingly and Brooklyn, until the Brooklyn portion petitioned to be reorganized as a fire district and concurrently the Killingly portion was renamed Danielson by the General Assembly.
Killingly is a town in Windham County, Connecticut, United States.

Brooklyn, Connecticut

BrooklynBrooklyn,
At least one borough historically spanned more than one town: the borough of Danielsonville originally laid over parts of Killingly and Brooklyn, until the Brooklyn portion petitioned to be reorganized as a fire district and concurrently the Killingly portion was renamed Danielson by the General Assembly.
Brooklyn is a town in Windham County, Connecticut, United States.

New Hampshire

NHState of New HampshireNew Hampshire, U.S.
Early town organization in Vermont and much of New Hampshire proceeded in a somewhat different manner from that of the other New England states.
New Hampshire municipalities are classified as towns or cities, which differ primarily by the form of government.

Plantation (Maine)

plantationplantationsa type of local government jurisdiction
In addition, Maine also has a unique type of entity called a plantation.
In the U.S. state of Maine, a plantation is a type of minor civil division falling between township (or unorganized territory) and town.

Hart's Location, New Hampshire

Hart's LocationFrankenstein TrestleHarts Location
New Hampshire: Coos County contains a total of seventeen grants, purchases and locations. Together, these cover a significant amount of land area, but had only 61 residents as of the 2000 Census (44 of whom lived in a single entity, Wentworth's Location). The only remaining unincorporated gore-like entity outside of Coos County is Hale’s Location, in neighboring Carroll County, a 2.5 mi2 tract, which has reported population in only three censuses since 1900. (Note that Hart's Location, also in Carroll County, has been incorporated since 1795, although it continues to carry the word “location" in its name. Wentworth's Location was similarly incorporated as a town at one time.)
Hart's Location is a town in Carroll County, New Hampshire, United States.

Hibberts Gore, Maine

Hibberts Gore
Maine: the interior of the state contains a number of entities of this type. There are a few remaining in more populated areas of the state as well. Examples include Hibberts Gore, in Lincoln County, and Batchelders Grant, in southern Oxford County.
Hibberts Gore (also called Hibberts) is a gore in Lincoln County, Maine.

Glastenbury, Vermont

Glastenbury
Vermont: The towns of Glastenbury and Somerset, located in the Green Mountains on opposite sides of the Bennington-Windham County line, disincorporated in 1937. In the 1940 Census, Glastenbury reported five residents, Somerset four. In only one census since then has the population of either reached double digits.
Glastenbury is a town in Bennington County, Vermont, United States.

Madrid, Maine

MadridReeds
Maine: Dozens of towns and plantations have surrendered their municipal organization over the years and reverted to unorganized territory. An especially large number of municipal dissolutions took place between 1935 and 1945, but some have also occurred before and after that time period. Recent town disincorporations include Centerville (2004), Madrid (2000) and Greenfield (1993). The most recent plantations to surrender their organization were Prentiss Plantation and E Plantation, both in 1990.
Madrid is a former town, now a part of the unorganized territory of East Central Franklin, in Franklin County, Maine, United States.

Somerset, Vermont

Somerset
Vermont: The towns of Glastenbury and Somerset, located in the Green Mountains on opposite sides of the Bennington-Windham County line, disincorporated in 1937. In the 1940 Census, Glastenbury reported five residents, Somerset four. In only one census since then has the population of either reached double digits.
Somerset is an unincorporated township and former town in Windham County, Vermont, United States.