New France

Location of New France (dark green) in 1712
A map of New France made by Samuel de Champlain in 1612
Location of New France (dark green) in 1712
Champlain's Habitation c. 1608
A map of western New France, including the Illinois Country, by Vincenzo Coronelli, 1688
The Merchant Flag of France (1689 design), inspiration for the flag of Quebec
One group of King's Daughters arrives at Quebec, 1667
Political map of the northeastern part of North America in 1664
French comfort women transported to Louisiana as brides for the colonists
Jean Talon, count of Orsainville, first intendant of New France.
Card money in New France had the same currency value in the colony as minted currency. c.1714
Company of New France building in present day Quebec City
The arrival of Radisson in an Amerindian camp in 1660
Map showing the approximate location of major tribes and settlements
1681 French map of the New World above the equator: New France and the Great Lakes in the north, with a dark line as the Mississippi River to the west in the Illinois Country and the mouth of the river (and future New Orleans) then terra incognita
Map of Canada (New France) in 1703, showing full length of Mississippi River
Le Grand Voyage du Pays des Hurons, Gabriel Sagard, 1632
Governor Frontenac performing a tribal dance with indigenous allies
Engraving depicting Adam Dollard with a keg of gunpowder above his head, during the Battle of Long Sault
Map of North America in 1702 showing forts, towns and (in solid colors) areas occupied by European settlements
An 1850s depiction of the death of the French Jesuit priest Sébastien Rale during Father Rale's War
Map of territorial claims in North America by 1750, before the French and Indian War, which was part of the greater worldwide conflict known as the Seven Years' War (1756 to 1763). Possessions of Britain (pink), France (blue), and Spain (orange, California, Pacific Northwest, and Great Basin not indicated)
Map showing British territorial gains following the Treaty of Paris in pink, and Spanish territorial gains after the Treaty of Fontainebleau in yellow
A chart showing the political organization of New France, c. 1759

The area colonized by France in North America, beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763 under the Treaty of Paris.

- New France

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The Acadians (Acadiens, ) are the descendants of the French who settled in Acadia during the 17th and 18th centuries.

Acadia (1754)
The Deportation of Acadians by Henri Beau
St. John River Campaign: A View of the Plundering and Burning of the City of Grimross (present-day Gagetown, New Brunswick) by Thomas Davies, 1758. This is the only contemporaneous image of the Expulsion of the Acadians.
Map of the Deportation/Expulsion of the Acadians (1755-1816)
Present-day Acadian communities
The Tintamarre in Caraquet, New Brunswick
A picture of four Acadian women, 1895
Acadian woman making a rug, 1938
A statue of Longfellow's Evangeline – at St. Martinville, Louisiana.
Monument to Imprisoned Acadians at Bishops Landing, Halifax, overlooking Georges Island
Acadians by Samuel Scott, Annapolis Royal, 1751
"Homme Acadien" (Acadian Man) by Jacques Grasset de Saint-Sauveur represent a Mi'kmaq man in the area of Acadia according to the Nova Scotia Museum.

Acadia was a distinctly separate colony of New France.

Expulsion of the Acadians

The forced removal by the British of the Acadian people from the present-day Canadian Maritime provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island, and the present-day U.S. state of Maine — parts of an area historically known as Acadia, causing the deaths of thousands of people.

St. John River Campaign: "A View of the Plundering and Burning of the City of Grimross" (1758)
Watercolor by Thomas Davies
British Army officer and Governor, Charles Lawrence
Deportation of the Acadians, Grand-Pré
Charles Deschamps de Boishébert et de Raffetot
Raid on Lunenburg (1756)
Major Jedidiah Preble
A view of Miramichi, a French settlement in the Gulf of St. Laurence, destroyed by Brigadier Murray detached by General Wolfe for that purpose, from the Bay of Gaspe, (1758)
Raid on Miramichi Bay – Burnt Church Village by Captain Hervey Smythe (1758)
Monument to Imprisoned Acadians on Georges Island (background), Bishops Landing, Halifax
A map of the British and French settlements in North America in 1755. The province of Nova Scotia had expanded to encompass all of Acadie, or present-day New Brunswick.
Mémorial des Acadiens de Nantes
Thomas Jefferys (1710–71) was a royal geographer to King George III and a London publisher of maps. He is well known for his maps of North America, produced to meet commercial demand, but also to support British territorial claims against the French. This map presents Nova Scotia and Cape Breton Island in the wake of the "great upheaval".

The Expulsion (1755–1764) occurred during the French and Indian Wars (the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War) and was part of the British military campaign against New France.

Saint Pierre and Miquelon

Self-governing territorial overseas collectivity of France in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean near the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.

Map of Saint Pierre and Miquelon
St Pierre, Le Quai La Roncière, 1887
Saint-Pierre in 1921
Map of the exclusive economic zone of Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Port of Miquelon during the winter
A proportional representation of Saint Pierre and Miquelon exports, 2019
Fishing boats in Saint-Pierre harbour
Miquelon Airport
An 1891 postage stamp from Saint Pierre and Miquelon
3D image of the Saint Pierre and Miquelon archipelago
Saint-Pierre aerial photo, 2013. Saint-Pierre Airport is at the lower right.
Aerial view of St Pierre, the capital and largest town

Saint Pierre and Miquelon is a remaining vestige of the once vast territory of New France.

French Canadians

Ethnic group who trace their ancestry to French colonists who settled in Canada beginning in the 17th century.

Voyageurs Passing a Waterfall by Frances Anne Hopkins
Habitants by Cornelius Krieghoff (1852)
Languages in Quebec
Université de Saint-Boniface in Manitoba
Major ethnicities in Canada
Distribution of French Americans in the United States
Distribution of the proportion of French Canadian across Canada.
Distribution of French in the United States
The fleur-de-lis, symbol of French Canada
Quebec stop sign

French Canadians get their name from Canada, the most developed and densely populated region of New France during the period of French colonization in the 17th and 18th centuries.

Kingdom of France

Historiographical name or umbrella term given to various political entities of France in the medieval and early modern period.

The Kingdom of France in 1000
Louis XIV, by Hyacinthe Rigaud, 1701
The Kingdom of France in 1000
Provinces in 1789
The Kingdom of France in 1000
Louis Philippe I by Franz Xaver Winterhalter (1841)
Western Francia during the time of Hugh Capet. The royal domain is shown in blue
The kingdom of France in 1030 (royal domain in light blue)
Territorial development under Philip August (Philip II), 1180–1223
The Reims Cathedral, built on the site where Clovis I was baptised by Remigius, functioned as the site for the coronation of the Kings of France.

Colonial conflicts with Great Britain led to the loss of much of its North American holdings by 1763.

Quebec City

Capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec.

Depiction of Jacques Cartier's meeting with the indigenous people of Stadacona in 1535
Plaque honouring the first settlers of Québec City. (affixed to back of monument to Guillaume Couillard, which accompanies those to Louis Hébert and Marie Rollet). Parc Montmorency, Québec City.
After a campaign of three months British forces captured Quebec City after the Battle of the Plains of Abraham.
British regulars and Canadian militia engage the Continental Army in the streets of the city. The Americans' failure to take Quebec in 1775 led to the end of their campaign in Canada.
Mackenzie King, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and the Earl of Athlone (left to right) at the First Quebec Conference, a secret military conference held in World War II
The Promontory of Quebec at the narrowing of the Saint Lawrence River and surrounded by the Laurentian Mountains
Winter scene at the Château Frontenac
The St. Jean (St. John) Gate
Chateau Frontenac in Quebec City
The Petit Champlain, containing the pictured Rue du Petit-Champlain, is claimed to be the oldest commercial district in North America.
Québec, photographed from Lévis
Map of the six boroughs that make up Quebec City
North-east aerial view from the Quebec Bridge area. The foreground shows the Sainte-Foy neighbourhood of Saint-Louis and the modern buildings of boulevard Laurier.
Hôtel-Dieu de Québec is one of three hospitals operated by CHUQ, the largest employer in Quebec City.
Saint-Roch's garden, lower town
Quebec City's Winter Carnival is the world's largest winter festival.
Montmorency Falls is a major waterfall in the city's east end.
The Québec Capitales play their home games at Stade Canac, a stadium primarily used for baseball.
Videotron Centre is an indoor arena and is presently used as the home arena for the major junior hockey Quebec Remparts.
The provincial Parliament Building is located in the city.
Quebec City Hall serves as the seat for the Quebec City Council.
An alley of Université Laval campus
The Pierre-Laporte Quebec Bridges connect the city with neighbouring Lévis.
RTC's Métrobus is a six lines, higher frequency and capacity bus service.

Champlain, also called "The Father of New France", served as its administrator for the rest of his life.

Canada (New France)

Map of Canada after 1713. At its fullest extent, Canada extended from south of the Great Lakes to the Gulf of St Lawrence.
Canada (in pink) in 1719
Map of Canada after 1713. At its fullest extent, Canada extended from south of the Great Lakes to the Gulf of St Lawrence.

The colony of Canada was a French colony within the larger territory of New France.

Mississippi River

Second-longest river and chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.

The beginning of the Mississippi River at Lake Itasca (2004)
Former head of navigation, St. Anthony Falls, Minneapolis, Minnesota
Confluence of the Wisconsin and Mississippi Rivers, viewed from Wyalusing State Park in Wisconsin
The Upper Mississippi River at its confluence with the Missouri River north of St. Louis
The confluence of the Mississippi (left) and Ohio (right) rivers at Cairo, Illinois, the demarcation between the Middle and the Lower Mississippi River
Lower Mississippi River near New Orleans
Map of the Mississippi River watershed
Sequence of NASA MODIS images showing the outflow of fresh water from the Mississippi (arrows) into the Gulf of Mexico (2004)
View along the former riverbed at the Tennessee/Arkansas state line near Reverie, Tennessee (2007)
In Minnesota, the Mississippi River runs through the Twin Cities (2007)
Community of boathouses on the Mississippi River in Winona, MN (2006)
The Mississippi River at the Chain of Rocks just north of St. Louis (2005)
A low-water dam deepens the pool above the Chain of Rocks Lock near St. Louis (2006)
The Stone Arch Bridge, the Third Avenue Bridge and the Hennepin Avenue Bridge in Minneapolis (2004)
The Dubuque-Wisconsin Bridge (2004)
The Chain of Rocks Bridge at St. Louis, Missouri
The Hernando de Soto Bridge in Memphis, Tennessee (2009)
Vicksburg Bridge
Towboat and barges at Memphis, Tennessee
Ships on the lower part of the Mississippi
Oil tanker on the Lower Mississippi near the Port of New Orleans
Barge on the Lower Mississippi River
Lock and Dam No. 11, north of Dubuque, Iowa (2007)
Lock and Dam No. 2, near Hastings, Minnesota (2007)
Lock and Dam No. 15, is the largest roller dam in the world Davenport, Iowa; Rock Island, Illinois. (1990)
Formation of the Atchafalaya River and construction of the Old River Control Structure.
Project design flood flow capacity for the Mississippi river in thousands of cubic feet per second.
Soldiers of the Missouri Army National Guard sandbag the River in Clarksville, Missouri, June 2008, following flooding.
Discovery of the Mississippi by De Soto A.D. 1541 by William Henry Powell depicts Hernando de Soto and Spanish Conquistadores seeing the Mississippi River for the first time.
Map of the French settlements (blue) in North America in 1750, before the French and Indian War (1754 to 1763).
Ca. 1681 map of Marquette and Jolliet's 1673 expedition.
Route of the Marquette-Jolliete Expedition of 1673
A Home on the Mississippi (1871)
Shifting sand bars made early navigation difficult.
Battle of Vicksburg (ca. 1888)
Mississippi River from Eunice, Arkansas, a settlement destroyed by gunboats during the Civil War.
Campsite at the river in Arkansas
The Old River Control Structure complex. View is to the east-southeast, looking downriver on the Mississippi, with the three dams across channels of the Atchafalaya River to the right of the Mississippi. Concordia Parish, Louisiana is in the foreground, on the right, and Wilkinson County, Mississippi, is in the background, across the Mississippi on the left.
Great River Road in Wisconsin near Lake Pepin (2005)
The American paddlefish is an ancient relict from the Mississippi

The river served first as a barrier, forming borders for New Spain, New France, and the early United States, and then as a vital transportation artery and communications link.

Cape Breton Island

Island on the Atlantic coast of North America and part of the province of Nova Scotia, Canada.

NASA landsat photo of Cape Breton Island
Philippe de Pastour de Costebelle, 1st Governor of Île Royale, only known image of a French Governor
Siege of Louisbourg (1758)
Samuel Waller Prentice, 84th Regiment, 4 January 1780, shipwrecked off Cape Breton, Nova Scotia by Robert Pollard (1784)
The former Congregation Sons of Israel synagogue, in Glace Bay. In 1902, the synagogue was Nova Scotia's first purpose-built synagogue. It permanently closed in July 2010. To the left is the also closed Talmud Torah community centre. This was the location of the Hebrew school and functions like Bar Mitzvah and wedding dinners.
Cape Breton Island's most recognizable and commonly used flag
Cape Breton Island's "Eagle" flag (1994)
Cape Breton Island's second cultural flag, the "Tartan" flag (early 1990s)
Cape Breton Island's first cultural flag, the blue-and-yellow flag, dates to the 1940s.
Cabot's Landing, Victoria County, commemorating the "first land seen" by explorer John Cabot in 1497
The shoreline of Bras d'Or Lake at Marble Mountain, Inverness Co.
A bulk carrier in the Strait of Canso docked at the Martin Marietta Materials quarry at Cape Porcupine
Cape Breton Highlands National Park
Smelt Brook on the northern shore
Entering Cape Breton Island from Canso Causeway
Seal Island Bridge in Victoria County, the 3rd-longest in Nova Scotia
Sydney Harbour with Point Edward, Westmount, and downtown Sydney visible

Île Royale remained formally part of New France until it was ceded to Great Britain by the Treaty of Paris in 1763.


Coastal commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region of northern France.

A view of the centre of Dieppe
Dieppe Dawn 19 August 1942 memorial stained glass Royal Military College of Canada
Panoramic view of Dieppe (taken from a hill close to the castle Château de Dieppe)
Abraham Duquesne
Albert Réville
View of Dieppe's Grand quai
JMW Turner, The Harbor of Dieppe, 1826
Walter Sickert, The Basket Shop, Rue St Jean, Dieppe, c. 1911 - 1912, Aberdeen Art Gallery
Georges Boillot winning the 1912 French Grand Prix in Dieppe
Carl Spitzweg's painting Frauenbad in Dieppe III
Frits Thaulow's Fra Dieppe med elven Arques (From Dieppe with the river Arques)
Ernst Oppler At the beach (c. 1912)
Nicolae Vermont's painting View of Dieppe's beach (1929)
The castle in the 1890s
Aerial photograph taken in June, 1945
Château-musée de Dieppe
The harbour
The waterfront

On July 23, 1632, 300 colonists heading to New France departed from Dieppe.