New Holland (Australia)

New HollandAustraliaDutchDutch colonisationNew Holland, AUSNieuw HollandNouvelle-HollandeNova HollandiaNova Hollandia (New Holland)Western Australia
New Holland (Nieuw Holland) is a historical European name for mainland Australia.wikipedia
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Terra Australis

Terra Australis IncognitaSouthern ContinentMagellanica
The name came for a time to be applied in most European maps to the vaunted "Southern land" or Terra Australis even after its coastline was finally explored.
Captain Cook and his contemporaries knew that the fifth continent (today's Australia), which they called New Holland, was entirely separate from the imagined (but still undiscovered) sixth continent (today's Antarctica).

Antarctica

AntarcticAntarctic continentReference Elevation Model of Antarctica
The continent Antarctica, later named in the 1890s, was still in largely speculative form; it resumed the name Terra Australis (sometimes suffixed Non Cognita, unknown).
Then in the nineteenth century, the colonial authorities in Sydney removed the Dutch name from New Holland.

New South Wales

NSWNew South Wales, AustraliaColony of New South Wales
British settlement in Sydney as a colony in 1788 prompted Britain to formally claim the east coast as New South Wales, leading to a search for a new collective name.
In 1770 Lieutenant James Cook was the first European to visit New South Wales when he conducted a survey along the unmapped eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland, now Australia.

Abel Tasman

Abel Janszoon TasmanTasmanAbel Janzoon Tasman
The name was first applied to Australia in 1644 by the Dutch seafarer Abel Tasman. The name New Holland was first applied to western and north coast of Australia in 1644 by the Dutch seafarer Abel Tasman, best known for his discovery of Tasmania (called by him Van Diemen's Land).
He followed the south coast of New Guinea eastwards in an attempt to find a passage to the eastern side of New Holland.

William Dampier

DampierDampier's circumnavigationDampier, William
The English Captain William Dampier used the name in his account of his two voyages there: the first arriving on 5 January 1688 and staying until March 12; his second voyage of exploration to the region was made in 1699.
Leaving Swan and 36 others behind on Mindanao, the rest of the privateers under new Captain John Read sailed on to Manila, Poulo Condor in modern-day Vietnam, China, the Spice Islands, and New Holland (Australia).

Matthew Flinders

Flinders[Matthew] FlindersCaptain Matthew Flinders
In 1804, the British navigator Matthew Flinders proposed the names Terra Australis or Australia for the whole continent, reserving "New Holland" for the western part of the continent.
Captain Matthew Flinders (16 March 1774 – 19 July 1814) was an English navigator and cartographer who led the second circumnavigation of New Holland that he would subsequently call "Australia or Terra Australis" and identified it as a continent.

James Cook

Captain CookCaptain James CookCook
On 22 August 1770, after sailing north along Australia's east coast, James Cook claimed the entire "Eastern coast of New Holland" that he had just explored as British territory.
However, the Admiralty's instructions did not authorise Cook to annex New Holland (Australia) and therefore it is unlikely that any possession ceremony occurred that August.

Dutch East India Company

VOCDutch East Indies CompanyDutch
Except for giving its name to the land, neither the Netherlands nor the Dutch East India Company claimed any territory in Australia as its own.
The VOC had seminal influences on the modern history of many countries and territories around the world such as New Netherland (New York), Indonesia, Malaysia, India, Sri Lanka, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Mauritius, Taiwan, and Japan.

Emu

Dromaius novaehollandiaeemusD. novaehollandiae
Many Australian species named in previous centuries have the specific name novaehollandiae or novae-hollandiae, for example the emu, Dromaius novaehollandiae.
The species was named by ornithologist John Latham in 1790 based on a specimen from the Sydney area of Australia, a country which was known as New Holland at the time.

Joseph Banks

Sir Joseph BanksBanksSir Joseph Banks, 1st Baronet
Flinders explained in a letter to Sir Joseph Banks:
In 1779, Banks, giving evidence before a committee of the House of Commons, had stated that in his opinion the place most eligible for the reception of convicts "was Botany Bay, on the coast of New Holland", on the general grounds that, "it was not to be doubted that a Tract of Land such as New Holland, which was larger than the whole of Europe, would furnish Matter of advantageous Return".

Charles Fremantle

Sir Charles FremantleCaptain Charles FremantleCaptain Fremantle
The name New Holland was still invoked as the name for the whole continent when Charles Fremantle on 9 May 1829 took formal possession in the name of King George IV of "all that part of New Holland which is not included within the territory of New South Wales."
One week later, he hoisted the British flag on the south head of the mouth of the Swan River and took formal possession in the name of His Majesty King George IV of "all that part of New Holland (Australia) which is not included within the territory of New South Wales".

History of Western Australia

Colony of Western AustraliaWestern AustraliaWestern Australia's history
He noted the lack of water and in his description of Shark Bay in his account "A Voyage to New Holland", he expressed his frustration:

European maritime exploration of Australia

European exploration of AustraliaExploration of AustraliaBritish explorer
He called Australia T Landt van d'Eendracht (shortened to Eendrachtsland), after his ship, a name which would be in use until Abel Tasman named the land New Holland in 1644.

Indigenous Australians

Indigenous AustralianAboriginalindigenous
In 1854, another American writer, Henry David Thoreau, used the term New Holland (referring to the territory of the "wild" indigenous Australians) in his book Walden; or, Life in the Woods, in which he writes:
Early accounts by Dutch explorers and the English buccaneer William Dampier wrote of the "natives of New Holland" as being "barbarous savages", but by the time of Captain James Cook and First Fleet marine Watkin Tench (the era of Jean-Jacques Rousseau), accounts of Aboriginal people were more sympathetic and romantic: "these people may truly be said to be in the pure state of nature, and may appear to some to be the most wretched upon the earth; but in reality they are far happier than ... we Europeans", wrote Cook in his journal on 23 August 1770.

Mainland Australia

Australian mainlandAustraliacontinental Australia
New Holland (Nieuw Holland) is a historical European name for mainland Australia.

Dutch people

DutchDutchmanDutchmen
The name was first applied to Australia in 1644 by the Dutch seafarer Abel Tasman. The name New Holland was first applied to western and north coast of Australia in 1644 by the Dutch seafarer Abel Tasman, best known for his discovery of Tasmania (called by him Van Diemen's Land).

Sydney

Sydney, AustraliaSydney, New South WalesSydney, New South Wales, Australia
British settlement in Sydney as a colony in 1788 prompted Britain to formally claim the east coast as New South Wales, leading to a search for a new collective name. With the establishment of a settlement at Sydney in 1788, the British solidified its claim to the eastern part of Australia, now officially called New South Wales.

South Africa

South AfricanRepublic of South AfricaRSA
New Holland was never settled by the Dutch people, whose colonial forces and buoyant population had a settled preference for South Africa, Dutch Guyana, the Dutch East Indies and the Dutch West Indies.

Dutch colonisation of the Guianas

Dutch GuianaGuianaDutch Guyana
New Holland was never settled by the Dutch people, whose colonial forces and buoyant population had a settled preference for South Africa, Dutch Guyana, the Dutch East Indies and the Dutch West Indies.

Dutch East Indies

Netherlands East IndiesDutch IndiesDutch
New Holland was never settled by the Dutch people, whose colonial forces and buoyant population had a settled preference for South Africa, Dutch Guyana, the Dutch East Indies and the Dutch West Indies.

Dutch Caribbean

Dutch West IndiesCaribbeanWest Indies
New Holland was never settled by the Dutch people, whose colonial forces and buoyant population had a settled preference for South Africa, Dutch Guyana, the Dutch East Indies and the Dutch West Indies.

Tasmania

TasTasmanianTasmania, Australia
The name New Holland was first applied to western and north coast of Australia in 1644 by the Dutch seafarer Abel Tasman, best known for his discovery of Tasmania (called by him Van Diemen's Land).

Netherlands

DutchThe NetherlandsHolland
Except for giving its name to the land, neither the Netherlands nor the Dutch East India Company claimed any territory in Australia as its own.

1788 in Australia

1788
With the establishment of a settlement at Sydney in 1788, the British solidified its claim to the eastern part of Australia, now officially called New South Wales.

Arthur Phillip

Governor PhillipGovernor Arthur PhillipCaptain Arthur Phillip
In the commission to Governor Phillip the boundary was defined as the 135th meridian east longitude (135° east ) (map from 25 April 1787), taking the line from Melchisédech Thévenot's chart, Hollandia Nova—Terre Australe, published in Relations de Divers Voyages Curieux (Paris, 1663).