A report on QuebecNew York (state) and War of 1812

Clockwise from top:
Damage to the United States Capitol after the burning of Washington

Mortally wounded Isaac Brock spurs on the York Volunteers at the battle of Queenston Heights

USS Constitution vs HMS Guerriere

The death of Tecumseh in 1813

Andrew Jackson defeats the British assault on New Orleans in 1815
Upper and Lower Canada, circa 1812
A depiction of Jacques Cartier by Théophile Hamel, 1844
New York was dominated by Iroquoian (purple) and Algonquian (pink) tribes.
Map showing the general distribution of Indian tribes in the Northwest Territory in the early 1790s
Three Huron-Wyandot chiefs from Wendake. New France had largely peaceful relations with the Indigenous people, such as their allies the Huron. After the defeat of the Huron by their mutual enemy, the Iroquois, many fled from Ontario to Quebec.
New Amsterdam, present-day Lower Manhattan, 1660
American expansion in the Indiana Territory
Montcalm leading his troops into battle. Watercolour by Charles William Jefferys.
New York and neighboring provinces, by Claude Joseph Sauthier, 1777
James Madison, the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817). Madison was the leader of the Democratic-Republican Party, whose power base came from southern and western states.
The Province of Quebec in 1774
British general John Burgoyne surrenders at Saratoga in 1777
Depiction of a British private soldier (left) and officer (right) of the period
The Battle of Saint-Eustache was the final battle of the Lower Canada Rebellion.
1800 map of New York from Low's Encyclopaedia
Governor General George Prévost was urged to maintain a defensive strategy as British forces were already preoccupied with the Napoleonic Wars.
George-Étienne Cartier, creator of the Quebec state and premier of Canada East
The Erie Canal at Lockport, New York, in 1839
Northern theatre, War of 1812
Maurice Duplessis, premier of Quebec from 1936 to 1939 and during the Grande Noirceur
Flight 175 hitting the South Tower on September11, 2001
American surrender of Detroit, August 1812
"Maîtres chez nous" was the electoral slogan of the Liberal Party during the 1962 election.
Flooding on AvenueC in Lower Manhattan caused by Hurricane Sandy
Oliver Hazard Perry's message to William Henry Harrison after the Battle of Lake Erie began as such: "We have met the enemy and they are ours".
René Lévesque, one of the architects of the Quiet Revolution, and the Premier of Quebec's first modern sovereignist government
New York is bordered by six U.S. states, two Great Lakes, and the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec.
Map of Quebec
Enveloped by the Atlantic Ocean and Long Island Sound, New York City and Long Island alone are home to about eleven million residents conjointly.
Laura Secord providing advance warning to James FitzGibbon, which led to a British-Iroquois victory at the Battle of Beaver Dams, June 1813
Michel's falls on Ashuapmushuan River in Saint-Félicien, Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean
Lake-effect snow is a major contributor to heavy snowfall totals in western New York, including the Tug Hill region.
Fencibles, militia, and Mohawks repel an American attack on Montreal, Battle of the Chateauguay, October 1813
Köppen climate types of Quebec
Two major state parks (in green) are the Adirondack Park (north) and the Catskill Park (south).
American infantry prepare to attack during the Battle of Lundy's Lane
Baie-Saint-Paul during winter
The Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor is a symbol of the United States and its ideals.
Unsuccessful British assault on Fort Erie, 14 August 1814
The Parliament Building in Quebec City
The African Burial Ground National Monument in Lower Manhattan
Defeat at Plattsburgh led Prévost to call off the invasion of New York.
The seventeen administrative regions of Quebec.
Map of the counties in New York
The Upper Mississippi River during the War of 1812:
The Édifice Ernest-Cormier is the courthouse for the Quebec Court of Appeal in Montreal
New York population distribution map. New York's population is primarily concentrated in the Greater New York area, including New York City and Long Island.
The Royal Navy's North American squadron was based in Halifax, Nova Scotia and Bermuda. At the start of the war, the squadron had one ship of the line, seven frigates, nine sloops as well as brigs and schooners.
The Basilica of Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré
The Stonewall Inn in the gay village of Greenwich Village, Lower Manhattan, site of the June 1969 Stonewall riots, the cradle of the modern LGBT rights movement
USS Constitution defeats in a single-ship engagement. The battle was an important victory for American morale.
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Captain Broke leads the boarding party to USS Chesapeake (1799). The British capture of Chesapeake was one of the bloodiest contests in the age of sail.
Map of aboriginal communities in Quebec, this includes reserves, settlements and northern villages.
The main laboratory building of the IBM Watson Research Center is located in Yorktown Heights, New York.
The Battle of Valparaíso ended the American naval threat to British interests in the south Pacific Ocean.
The Institut national de la recherche scientifique helps to advance scientific knowledge and to train a new generation of students in various scientific and technological sectors.
Times Square in Midtown Manhattan, hub of the Broadway theater district, a media center, and one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections
The capture of USS President was the last naval duel to take place during the conflict, with its combatants unaware of the signing of the Treaty of Ghent several weeks prior.
Quebec's exports to the international market. The United States is the country which buys the most Québécois exports by far. (2011)
"I Love New York"
Marines aboard USS Wasp (1814) engage, June 1814. During the war, sloops of the United States Navy scored several victories against British sloops.
The Beauharnois generating station, operated by Hydro-Québec
CMA CGM Theodore Roosevelt, the largest container ship to enter the Port of New York and New Jersey as of September7, 2017
Baltimore Clippers were a series of schooners used by American privateers during the war.
A mockup of the Airbus A220 (formerly the Bombardier CSeries), originally developed by Bombardier Aerospace
Harris Hall of the City College of New York, a public college of the City University of New York
A map of the American coastline. British naval strategy was to protect their shipping in North America and enforce a naval blockade on the United States.
The Château Frontenac is the most photographed hotel in the world.
Butler Library at Columbia University
The only known photograph of a Black Refugee, c. 1890. During the war, a number of African Americans slaves escaped aboard British ships, settling in Canada (mainly in Nova Scotia) or Trinidad.
In 1969, Héroux-Devtek designed and manufactured the undercarriage of the Apollo Lunar Module.
University of Rochester
Map of the Chesapeake Campaign
The ferry N.M. Camille-Marcoux, of the Société des traversiers du Québec
South campus of the University at Buffalo, the flagship of the State University of New York
Admiralty House, at Mount Wyndham, Bermuda, where the Chesapeake campaign was planned
The show Dralion, Cirque du Soleil, introduced in 2004
The New York City Subway is one of the world's busiest, serving more than five million passengers per average weekday.
An artist's rendering of the bombardment at Fort McHenry during the Battle of Baltimore. Watching the bombardment from a truce ship, Francis Scott Key was inspired to write the four-stanza poem that later became "The Star-Spangled Banner".
La chasse-galerie (1906) by Henri Julien, showing a scene from a popular Quebec folk legend.
Grand Central Terminal in New York City
In 1813, Creek warriors attacked Fort Mims and killed 400 to 500 people. The massacre became a rallying point for Americans.
La Cavalière by Charles Daudelin, 1963, installed in front of the pavilion Gérard Morisset of the Quebec National Museum of Fine Arts in Quebec City
John F. Kennedy Airport in Queens, the busiest international air passenger gateway to the United States
Creek forces were defeated at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, bringing an end to the Creek War.
Maison Routhier in Sainte-Foy. This kind of Canadien-style house remains a symbol of Canadien nationalism.
The New York State Capitol in Albany
American forces repelled a British assault on New Orleans in January 1815. The battle occurred before news of a peace treaty reached the United States.
A classic poutine from La Banquise in Montreal
New York State Court of Appeals
A political caricature of delegates from the Hartford Convention deciding whether to leap into the hands of the British, December 1814. The convention led to widespread fears that the New England states might attempt to secede from the United States.
The Montreal Canadiens at the Bell Centre
Kirsten Gillibrand and Chuck Schumer, New York's U.S. Senators
Depiction of the signing of the Treaty of Ghent, which formally ended the war between the British Empire and the United States
St-Jean-Baptiste Day celebrations at Maisonneuve park in Montréal
Kathy Hochul (D), the 57th Governor of New York
United States per capita GDP 1810–1815 in constant 2009 dollars
The Fleurdelisé flying at Place d'Armes in Montreal
Yankee Stadium in The Bronx
The Royal Naval Dockyard, Bermuda
Canada in the 18th century.
Koppen climate of New York
Fort Henry at Kingston in 1836. Built from 1832 to 1836, the fort was one of several works undertaken to improve the colonies' defences.
The Province of Quebec from 1763 to 1783.
Independence Day celebrations in 1819. In the United States, the war was followed by the Era of Good Feelings, a period that saw nationalism and a desire for national unity rise throughout the country.
Lower Canada from 1791 to 1841. (Patriots' War in 1837, Canada East in 1841)
Quebec from 1867 to 1927.
Quebec today. Quebec (in blue) has a border dispute with Labrador (in red).
Different forest areas of Quebec. 1. Middle Arctic Tundra
2. Low Arctic Tundra
3. Torngat Mountain Tundra
4. Eastern Canadian Shield Taiga
5. Southern Hudson Bay Taiga
6. Central Canadian Shield Forests
7. Eastern Canadian Forests
8. Eastern Forest/Boreal Transition
9. Eastern Great Lakes Lowland Forests
10. New England/Acadian Forests
11. Gulf of St. Lawrence Lowland Forests

Located in Central Canada, the province shares land borders with Ontario to the west, Newfoundland and Labrador to the northeast, New Brunswick to the southeast, and a coastal border with Nunavut; in the south it borders Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York in the United States.

- Quebec

The state of New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Vermont to the east; it has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest.

- New York (state)

In 1813, Charles-Michel de Salaberry became a hero by leading the Canadian troops to victory at the Battle of Chateauguay, during the War of 1812.

- Quebec

Thomas Jefferson believed taking "...Canada this year, as far as...Quebec, will be a mere matter of marching, and will give us the experience for the attack on Halifax, the next and final expulsion of England from the American continent".

- War of 1812

The first permanent immigration depot in New York was established in 1855 at Castle Garden, a converted War of 1812 era fort located within what is now Battery Park, at the tip of Lower Manhattan.

- New York (state)

Indigenous nations were displaced in Alabama, Georgia, New York and Oklahoma, losing most of what is now Indiana, Michigan, Ohio and Wisconsin within the Northwest Territory as well as in New York and the South.

- War of 1812

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Ontario

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One of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada.

One of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada.

Typical landscape of the Canadian Shield at Queen Elizabeth II Wildlands Provincial Park, located in Central Ontario
Köppen climate types of Ontario
Cold northwesterly wind over the Great Lakes creating lake-effect snow. Lake-effect snow most frequently occurs in the snowbelt regions of the province.
A 1755 map of the Pays d'en Haut region of New France, an area that included most of Ontario
A monument in Hamilton commemorating the United Empire Loyalists, a group of settlers who fled the United States during or after the American Revolution
Depiction of the Battle of Queenston Heights, during the War of 1812. Upper Canada was an active theatre of operation during the conflict.
A map highlighting the Canadas, with Upper Canada in orange, and Lower Canada in green. In 1841, the two colonies were united to form the Province of Canada.
Oliver Mowat, Premier of Ontario from 1872 to 1896
Law enforcement confiscate stores of alcohol in Elk Lake in an effort to enforce prohibition. The prohibition measures were introduced in 1916 and were not repealed until 1927.
A monument commemorating the immigrant family in Toronto. The province saw a large number of migrants settle in Ontario in the decades following World War II.
Evolution of the borders of Ontario since Canadian Confederation in 1867
Population density of Ontario
English and French displayed on a gantry sign. Communities with sizeable Francophone populations are able to receive provincial services in French.
Container ship at Algoma Steel. The Great Lakes provide ocean access for industries in the province's interior.
A worker at the Oakville Assembly installs a battery in an automobile. The automotive industry is a contributor to the economy of Ontario.
Toronto's Financial District serves as the centre for Canada's financial services.
Aerial view of farms in Waterloo. A significant portion of the land in Southern Ontario is used as farmland.
Grapevines growing in Prince Edward County, a wine-growing region
A sign marking the Ottawa Greenbelt, an initiative to protect farmland and limit urban sprawl
The Pickering Nuclear Generating Station is one of three nuclear power stations in Ontario.
The Sir Adam Beck Hydroelectric Generating Stations are hydroelectric plants located in Niagara Falls.
Osgoode Hall houses the Court of Appeal for Ontario, the appellate court for the province.
The Ontario Legislative Building at Queen's Park. The building serves as the meeting place for the Legislative Assembly of Ontario.
Map of the counties, regional municipalities, districts, and municipalities of Ontario.
An Ontario licence plate with the slogan Yours to Discover at the bottom of the plate
Thunder Bay International Airport is one of five international airports operating in Ontario.
Highway 400 in Seguin. The roadway forms a part of the province's 400-series highways.
Map of Upper Canada, 1811
Map of Canada West from 1855. Canada West formed the western portion of the Province of Canada.

Located in Central Canada, it is Canada's most populous province, with 38.3 percent of the country's population, and is the second-largest province by total area (after Quebec).

Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, and Quebec to the east and northeast, and to the south by the U.S. states of (from west to east) Minnesota, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York.

American troops in the War of 1812 invaded Upper Canada across the Niagara River and the Detroit River, but were defeated and pushed back by the British, Canadian fencibles and militias, and First Nations warriors.

Map of Mohawk River

Mohawk people

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The Mohawk people are the most easterly section of the Haudenosaunee, or Iroquois Confederacy.

The Mohawk people are the most easterly section of the Haudenosaunee, or Iroquois Confederacy.

Map of Mohawk River
Kanienʼkehá:ka dancer at a pow wow in 2015
Contemporary Quebec Kanienʼkehá꞉ka dance performance at Wikimania 2017
Teyoninhokovrawen (John Norton) played a prominent role in the War of 1812, leading Iroquois warriors from Grand River into battle against Americans. Norton was part Cherokee and part Scottish.
Pauline Johnson, Mohawk writer

They are an Iroquoian-speaking Indigenous people of North America, with communities in southeastern Canada and northern New York State, primarily around Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River.

Their territory ranged north to the St. Lawrence River, southern Quebec and eastern Ontario; south to greater New Jersey and into Pennsylvania; eastward to the Green Mountains of Vermont; and westward to the border with the Iroquoian Oneida Nation's traditional homeland territory.

The Mohawks fought as allies of the British against the United States in the War of 1812.

New England

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Region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont.

Region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont.

Indigenous territories, circa 1600 in present-day southern New England
Soldier and explorer John Smith coined the name "New England" in 1616.
A 1638 engraving depicting the Mystic massacre
An English map of New England c. 1670 depicts the area around modern Portsmouth, New Hampshire.
The New England Ensign, one of several flags historically associated with New England. This flag was reportedly used by colonial merchant ships sailing out of New England ports, 1686 – c. 1737.
New England's Siege of Louisbourg (1745) by Peter Monamy
The Slater Mill Historic Site in Pawtucket, Rhode Island
Bread and Roses Strike. Massachusetts National Guard troops surround unarmed strikers in Lawrence, Massachusetts, 1912.
Autumn in New England, watercolor, Maurice Prendergast, c.1910–1913
Cambridge, Massachusetts, has a high concentration of startups and technology companies.
A political and geographical map of New England shows the coastal plains in the southeast, and hills, mountains and valleys in the west and the north.
A portion of the north-central Pioneer Valley in Sunderland, Massachusetts
Köppen climate types in New England
The White Mountains of New Hampshire are part of the Appalachian Mountains.
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Montpelier, Vermont, is the smallest state capital in the United States.
Largest self-reported ancestry groups in New England. Americans of Irish descent form a plurality in most of Massachusetts, while Americans of English descent form a plurality in much of the central parts of Vermont and New Hampshire as well as nearly all of Maine.
World's largest Irish flag in Boston. People who claim Irish descent constitute the largest ethnic group in New England.
Southeastern New England is home to a number of Lusophone ethnic enclaves.
The Port of Portland in Portland, Maine, is the largest tonnage seaport in New England.
The Hartford headquarters of Aetna is housed in a 1931 Colonial Revival building.
A plowed field in Bethel, Vermont
Seabrook Station Nuclear Power Plant in Seabrook, New Hampshire
A New England town meeting in Huntington, Vermont
Flag of the New England Governor's Conference (NEGC)
Alumni Hall at Saint Anselm College has served as a backdrop for media reports during the New Hampshire primary.
New England is home to four of the eight Ivy League universities. Pictured here is Harvard Yard of Harvard University.
Phillips Exeter Academy and Phillips Academy are two prestigious New England secondary schools founded in the late 18th century
Flag of New England flying in Massachusetts. New Englanders maintain a strong sense of regional and cultural identity.
A classic New England Congregational church in Peacham, Vermont
Boston's Symphony Hall is the home of the Boston Symphony Orchestra—the second-oldest of the Big Five American symphony orchestras.
New England regionalist poet Robert Frost
Wes Anderson's Moonrise Kingdom is set on a fictional New England island and was largely filmed in Rhode Island
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
A Hartford Line Train at Hartford Union Station
The MBTA Commuter Rail serves eastern Massachusetts and parts of Rhode Island, radiating from downtown Boston, with planned service to New Hampshire. The CTrail system operates the Shore Line East and Hartford Line, covering coastal Connecticut, Hartford, and Springfield, Massachusetts.
1. Boston, Massachusetts
2. Worcester, Massachusetts
3. Providence, Rhode Island
4. Springfield, Massachusetts
5. Bridgeport, Connecticut
6. Stamford, Connecticut
7. New Haven, Connecticut
8. Hartford, Connecticut
9. Cambridge, Massachusetts
10. Manchester, New Hampshire
Harvard vs. Yale football game in 2003
Fenway Park
Bill Russell and Red Auerbach of the Boston Celtics
The New England Patriots are the most popular professional sports team in New England.
The Middlebury College rowing team in the 2007 Head of the Charles Regatta
Köppen climate types in New England

It is bordered by the state of New York to the west and by the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick to the northeast and Quebec to the north.

As the United States and the United Kingdom fought the War of 1812, New England Federalists organized the Hartford Convention in the winter of 1814 to discuss the region's grievances concerning the war, and to propose changes to the U.S. constitution to protect the region's interests and maintain its political power.